Infant Formula

Topics: Milk, Infant formula, Breastfeeding Pages: 14 (5216 words) Published: October 29, 2005
Breast milk is widely accepted to be the ideal nutritional choice for babies during their first year. However, many parents, for any number of reasons, do not choose to breastfeed at birth. And of those who do choose to breastfeed initially, 78% stop doing so by the time their baby is six months of age.1 These families are faced with having to choose an infant formula. Any trip to a local grocery can prove how difficult a task this can be. The questions these parents most likely would ask would be: is one formula better than another? Does brand name matter? Does "new and improved" or "enhanced" formula mean better? Are infant formulas really a safe and nutritious choice for feeding babies? The Federal Drug Administration (FDA) regulates over forty different brands and types of infant formulas in the United States.2 They can be milk-based, soy-based or protein hydroslysate formula (hypoallergenic).7 They can be a name brand or generic brand. In addition, they can be further broken down into many other categories including formulas with iron or with low iron, lactose-free formulas, nutrient-enhanced formulas, and even formulas for preventing excess spit-up.3 Then, if that isn't enough, there are also ready-made, concentrate and powdered forms! The American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Nutrition, despite its strong endorsement for breastfeeding, advocates the use of iron-fortified formulas for non-breastfed babies.6 Due to this recommendation, this paper will cover the reasoning behind this endorsement. In addition, this paper will look at the new enhanced formulas containing the two nutritional fatty acids, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (AHA).

The need for breast milk supplementation is not new. Before the era of modern medicine there were circumstances, just as today, which would prevent a new mom from nursing her baby. It was common then under those circumstance to employ a "wet-nurse."9 A wet-nurse was in fact a lactating woman who would be paid to nurse other people's babies. When a wet-nurse wasn't available or wasn't financially feasible, babies where fed milks from cows, goats, mares & donkeys.9 During the 19th century wet nursing did fall out of favor. More attention was focused towards trying to find an adequate substitute for mother's milk.8 Cow's milk became more of the norm for supplementation due to its ready availability. It was during this time observations were made that infants fed cow's milk had a higher mortality rate as well as were more prone to indigestion and dehydration as compared to infants that were breastfed.9 A German scientist in 1838, Johann Franz Simon, published the first biochemical analysis of the nutrient contents of human and cow's milk. It served as a basis for formula nutrition science for decades to follow.9 This analysis is actually very similar to modern determinations.19 Simon discovered that cow's milk had a higher protein content and lower carbohydrate content than human milk.8 In addition, he believed that the larger curds of cow milk, as compared to the smaller curds of human milk, were responsible for the indigestibility of cow's milk.8 Simon was also the first scientist to link estimates of the metabolic rates (energy requirements) of infants and the calorie content of milk.19 He, with the work of others, estimated that infants have a caloric need of 100 calories per kilogram per day during the first few months of life.19 This is remarkably similar to currently estimated requirements. By 1860, a German chemist, Justus von Leibig, developed the first commercial baby food.9 It was a powdered formula made from wheat flour, cow's milk, malt flour and potassium bicarbonate.9 This formula, called Leibig's Soluble Infant Food, was added to heated cow's milk. It was the first commercial baby food to be sold in the United States. It sold for $1 per bottle in 1869.9 It was in 1869 that Nestlé's Infant Food, made with...

References: 1. Healthy People 2010 Objectives for the Nation (n.d.) CDC 's Breastfeeding Resources/Healthy People 2010 Objective. Retrieved February 16, 2005, from
2. Drug Information: Infant Formulas (Systemic) (n.d.). Medline Plus. Retrieved on January 28, 2005, from
7. Infant Formula: The next-best thing to breast feeding (n.d.). Mayo Clinic. Retrieved on November 2, 2004, from
8. Spaulding, M (1991). Nurturing Yesterday 's Child: A portrayal of the Drake Collection of Pediatric History. Philadelphia, BC.
9. Schuman, M.D., A.J
10. Marriot, Wm, Schoenthal, L (1929)
11. Cone, T. (1979) History of American Pediatrics. Boston, Little, Brown, and Company.
12. The Nestle Boycott: The Story of the WHO/UNICEF Code for Marketing Breastmilk Substitutes (1955, December 22)
13. WHO/UNICEF Code for Marketing Breast milk Substitutes (1981)
22. Iron Fortification of Infant Formulas (July 1, 1991). Pediatrics. Retrieved from
23. Iron Fortification of Infant Formulas (July 1, 1991)
24. Oski, F.A.(1980). Iron Fortified Formulas and Gastrointestinal Symptoms in Infants: A Controlled Study. Pediatrics, 66, 168-170.
25. Nelson, S.E., Ziegler, E.E., Copeland, A.M., Edwards, B.B., Fomon, S.J. (1988) Lack of Adverse Reactions to Iron Fortified Formula. Pediatrics, 81, 360-364.
26. Karen H
27. Bradley, C.K., Hillman, L., Sherman, A.R., Leedy, D., Cordano, A. (May 1993). Evaluation of two Iron Fortified, Milk Based Formulas During Infantcy. Pediatrics, 91(15), 908-114.
28. Comparing Infant Formulas with Human Milk. Infant Formula: Evaluating the Safety of New Ingredients (2004). Retrieved on February 14, 2005, from
29. Gaull, G.E. (1983). Taurine in Human Milk: Growth Modulator or Conditionally Essential Amino Acid? Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterol Nutrition, 2 Suppl. 1, S266-71.
30. Sturman JA. Department of Developmental Biochemistry, Institute for Basic Research in Developmental Disabilities, Staten Island, NY (October 1988). Taurine in Development. Journal of Nutrition, 118(10), 1169-76.
32. Carver et al (1991). Dietary Nucleotide effects upon immune function in infants. American Academy of Pediatrics, 88(2), 359-363.
37. Bright Beginings retrieved from
38. Taurine Introduction (2001)
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