The Federal Drug Administration (FDA) regulates over forty different brands and types of infant formulas in the United States.2 They can be milk-based, soy-based or protein hydroslysate formula (hypoallergenic).7 They can be a name brand or generic brand. In addition, they can be further broken down into many other categories including formulas with iron or with low iron, lactose-free formulas, nutrient-enhanced formulas, and even formulas for preventing excess spit-up.3 Then, if that isn 't enough, there are also ready-made, concentrate and powdered forms!
The American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Nutrition, despite its strong endorsement for breastfeeding, advocates the use of iron-fortified formulas for non-breastfed babies.6 Due to this recommendation, this paper will cover the reasoning behind this endorsement. In addition, this paper will look at the new enhanced formulas containing the two nutritional fatty acids, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (AHA).
The need for breast milk supplementation is not new. Before the era of modern medicine there were circumstances, just as today, which would prevent a new mom from nursing her baby. It was common then under those circumstance to employ a "wet-nurse."9 A wet-nurse was in fact
References: 1. Healthy People 2010 Objectives for the Nation (n.d.) CDC 's Breastfeeding Resources/Healthy People 2010 Objective. Retrieved February 16, 2005, from http://www.cdc.gov/breastfeeding/policy-hp2010.htm 2. Drug Information: Infant Formulas (Systemic) (n.d.). Medline Plus. Retrieved on January 28, 2005, from http:///wwwnlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/druginfo/uspdi/202678.html 7. Infant Formula: The next-best thing to breast feeding (n.d.). Mayo Clinic. Retrieved on November 2, 2004, from http://www.mayoclinic.com/invoke.cfm?objectid=69FADBD9-D0F6-45D2- 8. Spaulding, M (1991). Nurturing Yesterday 's Child: A portrayal of the Drake Collection of Pediatric History. Philadelphia, BC. 9. Schuman, M.D., A.J http://www.scholar.google.com/scholar?hl=en&lr=&=cache:KMgrBVp0kREJ:www.drugtopics.com 10. Marriot, Wm, Schoenthal, L (1929) 11. Cone, T. (1979) History of American Pediatrics. Boston, Little, Brown, and Company. 12. The Nestle Boycott: The Story of the WHO/UNICEF Code for Marketing Breastmilk Substitutes (1955, December 22) http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp 13. WHO/UNICEF Code for Marketing Breast milk Substitutes (1981) 22. Iron Fortification of Infant Formulas (July 1, 1991). Pediatrics. Retrieved from http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp 23. Iron Fortification of Infant Formulas (July 1, 1991) 24. Oski, F.A.(1980). Iron Fortified Formulas and Gastrointestinal Symptoms in Infants: A Controlled Study. Pediatrics, 66, 168-170. 25. Nelson, S.E., Ziegler, E.E., Copeland, A.M., Edwards, B.B., Fomon, S.J. (1988) Lack of Adverse Reactions to Iron Fortified Formula. Pediatrics, 81, 360-364. 26. Karen H 27. Bradley, C.K., Hillman, L., Sherman, A.R., Leedy, D., Cordano, A. (May 1993). Evaluation of two Iron Fortified, Milk Based Formulas During Infantcy. Pediatrics, 91(15), 908-114. 28. Comparing Infant Formulas with Human Milk. Infant Formula: Evaluating the Safety of New Ingredients (2004). Retrieved on February 14, 2005, from http://www.nap.edu/openbook/0309091500/html/41.html 29. Gaull, G.E. (1983). Taurine in Human Milk: Growth Modulator or Conditionally Essential Amino Acid? Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterol Nutrition, 2 Suppl. 1, S266-71. 30. Sturman JA. Department of Developmental Biochemistry, Institute for Basic Research in Developmental Disabilities, Staten Island, NY (October 1988). Taurine in Development. Journal of Nutrition, 118(10), 1169-76. 32. Carver et al (1991). Dietary Nucleotide effects upon immune function in infants. American Academy of Pediatrics, 88(2), 359-363. 37. Bright Beginings retrieved from http://www.brightbeginnings.com/ 38. Taurine Introduction (2001)