Indian Independence Movement and India

Topics: India, Indian independence movement, British Raj Pages: 7 (3416 words) Published: September 3, 2013
Independence Day, observed annually on 15 August, is a national holiday in India commemorating the nation's independence from British rule on 15 August 1947. India attained freedom following an independence movement noted for largely nonviolent resistance and civil disobedience led by the Indian National Congress (INC).[1] Independence coincided with the partition of India, in which the British Indian Empire was divided along religious lines into the Dominions of India and Pakistan; the partition was accompanied by violent riots and mass casualties. On 15 August 1947, Jawaharlal Nehru, who had become the first Prime Minister of India that day, raised the Indian national flag above the Lahore Gate of the Red Fort in Delhi. On each subsequent Independence Day, the Prime Minister has raised the flag and given a speech.[2] The holiday is observed throughout India with flag-hoisting ceremonies, parades and cultural events. Indians celebrate the day by displaying the national flag on their attire, accessories, homes and vehicles; by listening to patriotic songs, watching patriotic movies; and bonding with family and friends. Books and films feature the independence and partition in their narrative. Separatist and militant organisations have often carried out terrorist attacks on and around 15 August, and others have declared strikes and used black flags to boycott the celebration. Contents [hide]

1 History
1.1 Independence Day before independence
1.2 Immediate background
1.3 Partition and independence
2 Celebration
3 Security threats
4 In popular culture
5 See also
6 References
7 External links
History[edit source | editbeta]

Main article: Indian independence movement
European traders had established outposts on the Indian subcontinent by the 17th century. Through overwhelming military strength, the British East India company subdued local kingdoms and established themselves as the dominant force by the 18th century. Following the Rebellion of 1857, the Government of India Act 1858 led the British Crown to assume direct control of India. In the decades following, civic society gradually emerged across India, most notably the Indian National Congress, formed in 1885.[3][4]:123 The period after World War I was marked by British reforms such as the Montagu–Chelmsford Reforms, but it also witnessed the enactment of the repressive Rowlatt Act and calls for self-rule by Indian activists. The discontent of this period crystallized into nationwide non-violent movements of non-cooperation and civil disobedience, led by Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi.[4]:167 During the 1930s, reform was gradually legislated by the British; Congress won victories in the resulting elections.[4]:195–197 The next decade was beset with political turmoil: Indian participation in World War II, the Congress's final push for non-cooperation, and an upsurge of Muslim nationalism led by the All-India Muslim League. The escalating political tension was capped by Independence in 1947. The jubilation was tempered by the bloody partition of the subcontinent into India and Pakistan.[4]:203 Independence Day before independence[edit source | editbeta] At the 1929 Lahore session of the Indian National Congress, the Purna Swaraj declaration, or "Declaration of the Independence of India" was promulgated,[5] and 26 January was declared as Independence Day.[5] The Congress called on people to pledge themselves to civil disobedience and "to carry out the Congress instructions issued from time to time" until India attained complete independence.[6] Celebration of such an Independence Day was envisioned to stoke nationalistic fervour among Indian citizens, and to force the British government to consider granting independence.[7]:19 The Congress observed 26 January as the Independence Day between 1930 and 1947.[8][9] The celebration was marked by meetings where the attendants took the "pledge of independence".[7]:19–20 Jawaharlal Nehru described in his autobiography...

References: ^ a b c d e Metcalf, B.; Metcalf, T. R. (9 October 2006). A Concise History of Modern India (2nd ed.). Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-68225-1.
^ a b Wolpert, Stanley A. (12 October 1999). India. University of California Press. p. 204. ISBN 978-0-520-22172-7. Retrieved 20 July 2012.
^ Vohra, Ranbir (2001). The Making of India: a Historical Survey. M.E. Sharpe. p. 148. ISBN 978-0-7656-0711-9. Retrieved 20 July 2012.
^ Ramaseshan, Radhika (26 January 2012). "Why January 26: the History of the Day". The Telegraph. Retrieved 19 July 2012.
^ Nehru, Jawaharlal (1989). Jawaharlal Nehru, An Autobiography: With Musings on Recent Events in India. Bodley Head. p. 209. ISBN 978-0-370-31313-9. Retrieved 26 August 2012.
^ Gandhi, (Mahatma) (1970). Collected Works of Mahatma Gandhi 42. Publications Division, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Government of India. pp. 398–400. Retrieved 26 August 2012.
^ a b Read, Anthony; Fisher, David (1 July 1999). The Proudest Day: India 's Long Road to Independence. W. W. Norton & Company. pp. 459–60. ISBN 978-0-393-31898-2. Retrieved 4 August 2012.
^ a b c Guha, Ramachandra (2007). India After Gandhi: The History of the World 's Largest Democracy. London: Macmillan. ISBN 978-0-230-01654-5.
^ Keay, John (2000). India: A History. Grove Press. p. 508. ISBN 9780802137975. "East to west and west to east perhaps ten million fled for their lives in the greatest exodus in recorded history."
^ DeRouen, Karl; Heo, Uk
^ Alexander, Horace (1 August 2007). "A miracle in Calcutta". Prospect. Retrieved 27 July 2012.
^ "Jawaharlal Nehru (1889–1964): Speech On the Granting of Indian Independence, August 14, 1947". Fordham University. Retrieved 26 07 2012.
^ a b Gupta, K.R.; Gupta, Amita (1 January 2006). Concise Encyclopaedia of India. Atlantic Publishers. p. 1002. ISBN 978-81-269-0639-0. Retrieved 20 July 2012.
^ Bhattacharya, Suryatapa (15 August 2011). "Indians Still Battling it out on Independence Day". The National. Retrieved 20 July 2012.
^ a b Ansari, Shabana (15 August 2011). "Independence Day: For GenNext, It’s Cool to Flaunt Patriotism". DNA. Retrieved 20 July 2012.
^ Dutta Sachdeva, Sujata; Mathur, Neha (14 August 2005). "It 's Cool to Be Patriotic: GenNow". The Times of India. Retrieved 25 July 2012.
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