IMPROVING BRAKE EFFICIENCY IN CARS WITHOUT CHANGING TYRES Paul Danny Anandan B.E
Medway School Of Engineering, University Of Greenwich
PREVIOUS TRACK RECORD AND PROJECT BACKGROUND
Since 1918 the revolution in brake technology has started from the invention of four-wheel hydraulic brake systems by Malcolm Loughead. The hydraulic brakes have replaced mechanical brakes which were in use at that time. The mechanical brakes had several disadvantages. It had a difficulty to brake all the wheels equally at the same time. Hydraulic brake requires the driver to give tremendous force on the brake pedal to slowdown the car. In 1918 It's disadvantages were quickly caught and rectified by 1929, four wheel hydraulic brakes were the standard brakes on the higher priced cars. It took many years to be implemented in the lower price cars. As the speed of the vehicles and their weight increased, better brakes were needed. The major problem in drum brakes is that the heat is not efficiently exhausted. The heat which is produced inside the drum cannot escape because the drum makes a cover so that the wind could not take it away. Whereas disc brakes were kept open to the wind passing. Since 1950's the effort on pedal pressure to operate has been reduced due to the reason that the self-servo effect is caused by the motion of the car. This motion helps in pulling the brake shoe to touch the drum which helps to lower the pedal pressure. In early 1950's the disk brakes were introduced in the market with higher price. In later 1950's, after Chrysler developed the disc brake with assisted movement in the piston inside the master cylinder by which the driver can apply less pedal pressure to have greater braking effectiveness. The next recent development in braking systems was the anti-lock or anti-skid braking. Today, anti-lock brakes were commonly installed many new cars. Brakes stop the rotating wheel and not the car so without wheels it is impossible to stop a car. Even if we apply brake, the tyres take a significant role in stopping the car by providing friction between the road surface and the tyre itself. Indeed if there is no friction between the tyre and the road the vehicle keeps on moving from the place of brake application, so tyres need to have more patterns and grip in it to provide good braking. But this project does not concentrate on tyres indeed it deals with increasing the break efficiency by providing some additional features to the brake components. The recent invention in velocity box with GPS system can take remedies even before braking by comparing the speed, position, distance and relative time laps with the traffic ahead of the vehicle. This project aims in increasing the brake efficiency by providing some additional design and mechanical accessories to the braking system.
Stopping a Car without Brakes:
Brakes are considered as one of the most important area of a motor vehicle. Without them the only means of deceleration would be depressing the clutch pedal and waiting patiently. There are other two means of decelerating the vehicle which were as follows; The Engine and
The Braking system.
The first is engine braking, the process of selecting a lower gear than is currently engaged and releasing the accelerator pedal. The drag and pumping effect of the engine reduces its revs quite quickly. As the engine is in gear the speed decreases, so does the wheel speed, hence the car slows down and stops. The second means of decelerating a vehicle is the braking system. A brake is an energy converter. An engine converts the heat energy released during combustion into kinetic energy of the road wheels. A brake assembly converts the kinetic energy that the rotating wheels posses into heat energy via the medium of friction within the brake. Factors Affecting Braking Efficiency:
The efficiency of a brake depends upon its ability to dissipate the heat that it creates. The faster the rate that the...
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