In the given debate topic of 'Is ethnic conflict inevitable?' both authors have explained their perspectives with an example of historical events in particular society. I would like to explain the summary of both the sides and then I would express my point of view as under.
Sudhir Kakar – a social researcher in India has taken the psychological perspective to explain the inevitable causes of ethnic conflicts. Taking Indian community as a whole, he differentiates the understanding of everybody with the concepts of splitting and projective identification for each other whether conscious, pre-conscious, or unconscious! The Hindus, the Muslims and the Sikhs, for example, have been fighting with each other to prove the dominance of population over the other in very different ways. The self-esteem level transcends into high ego level very rapidly as and when there is a discussion of cultural values in these communities. He mentions certain examples of Bad Spirits or BHUTA or demon spirits in his research and according to him right education at school level directing future citizens towards creating a global community can certainly make a difference.
Through the article 'the manipulation of ethnicity: from ethnic cooperation to violence and war in Yogoslavia', Anthony Oberschall has presented four different views of ethnicity and ethnic conflict; 'primordial', 'instrumentalist', 'constructionist', and the 'state breakdown'.
From 'primordial' perspective, former Yogoslavia did have pretended friendship between Muslims and Serbs but they were poured by mistrust, hatred, fear of survival and aggressive behavior. Though this was not fully supported by evidences and eyewitness! From 'instrumentalist' perspective, politicians and those in power manipulate ethnic feelings and identities in order to make political gains. The central focus was to create new state - Greater Serbia. Accordingly the average Bosnians and Serbs were surveyed to display a sentiment...
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