Change Models (Hand out)
1) Lewin’s Planned Change Model
Lewin’s model gives a simple overview of what all change entails. It is based on the underlying assumption that any condition exists because of competing forces that are in equilibrium. In order to effect any change, some of these forces have to be adjusted. The unfreezing process is therefore a process of disturbing the forces. This can be done in a variety of ways, and the other two methods typically start off by beginning to weaken some of the forces that currently hold things in place, by e.g. pointing out certain organizational weaknesses, or by pointing out the potential for improvement in certain areas. It could also focus on strengthening forces that would support movement in the direction that the organization wants to move. The movement process is then the process of implementing the necessary change. The underlying philosophy of force fields, would imply that movement will happen almost automatically, once the force fields are adjusted – in fact, the movement becomes inevitable. Understanding this model and its underlying concepts therefore helps us understand why the other change models are effective in overcoming resistance to change, and in creating an environment that is conducive to permanent change. The refreezing process happens once the desired state has been reached. When the desired state is reached, the forces that are holding this new state in equilibrium are again identified, and now reinforced or “frozen” into place through a variety of actions. 2) Action Research Model
The Action Research Model has two major phases. A preliminary or preparatory phase, and then a cycle phase. * In the preliminary phase, the problem is first identified. It refers to the fact that something which needs to be changed, is identified. * Consultation is then held with a behavioral science expert, for example an OD consultant, an organizational psychologist, or someone similar who can shed...
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