How information value affects travel intention: A cross-culture perspective Introduction
When an individual is seeking available alternatives of a certain product or service, information search process serves as an assistant role for fulfilling a variety of values that he or she desires(Diehl & Zauberman, 2005; Fodness & Murray, 1998; Gursoy & Chen, 2000; Hoffman & Novak, 1996; James & Bergh, 1990; Nishimura, Waryszak, & King, 2007; Vogt & Fesenmaier, 1998). During the information search process, consumers are more likely to purchase product or service when the given information delivers desired value(Diehl & Zauberman, 2005; Goossens, 2000; James & Bergh, 1990). There is no doubt that information search behavior, serving as an essential antecedent process of travelers’ trip decision making, has became one of the most important areas in tourism marketing research(Chen & Gursoy, 2000; Fodness & Murray, 1997; Gursoy, 2003; Hyde, 2007). However, the majority of prior tourism research on information search behavior were mostly focusing on travelers’ different preference of various information search sources under certain types of variables(e.g. trip purpose, type, parity size, duration, mode, and so on) and not much attention was paid to the effect of information value on travelers’ travel intention. As Kamakura and Novak(1992) argued, many scholars agree that the value plays as a central role in directing people’s attitudes toward a specific object, situation and subsequent behavior. For tourism marketers, in order to deliver the travel-related information to potential travelers in a more efficient manner through effective information sources, a well understanding of information value in the tourism situation is also necessary. On the other hand, acquainting with what information value travelers need to make their trip decisions is of great importance in promoting a destination and improving familiarity with a destination(MiHea & Jang, 2008a). While many previous researchers have noted the multidimensional features of value(Baloglu, 2000; Bojanic, 1996; Goossens, 2000; Grewal, Monroe, & Krishnan, 1998; Parasuraman & Grewal, 2000; Park, Jaworski, & Maclnnis, 1986; Petrick, 2002; Richins, 1994; Vogt & Fesenmaier, 1998), MiHea and Jang(2008) further organized and identified five information value dimensions(utilitarian, risk avoidance, hedonic, sensation seeking, and social) based on an extensive review of prior literature. In our study, utilitarian and hedonic value are two major focused dimension under investigation. On the other hand, culture has been always one of the most frequently used dimensions in most of modern research field. As You et al.(2004) argued, many of prior marketing and social sciences research have generated lots of meaningful and interesting perspectives about the cultural effects at the country level by conducting various conceptual and empirical studies. Also, over the last two decades, a growing body of research findings and evidences has shown that travelers’ behaviors and patterns are culture-orientated(You, Morrison, & Hong, 2000). Therefore, given that people from different culture hold different values and behaviors, this study aims to investigate whether different dimensions information value (Functional value V.S. Hedonic value) have different level of impact on Chinese and U.S. travelers’ (Collectivism V.S. Individualism) travel intention. It is hope that the findings of this paper would offer tourism marketers a new insight that which type of information value they should emphasize more when they are delivering information to travelers from different culture societies. Literature Review
Rokeach(1973) has claimed that values are the underlying nature of people’s needs and wants. Cheng et al.(2009) also argued that value has been considered as the predictive role of consumer behavior and functions as an...
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