1. What are Hofstede's five dimensions of cultural differences that affect work attitudes? Using these dimensions describe the United States.
1.1 Individualism vs. Collectivism, the individuals believe they should make their own choices and be responsible for them, they are concerned about losing their social frames, in contrast the collectivism involves the loyalty and group thinking in order to create hormonal work process. The individualism encourages individual achievements, as collectivism enhance the impotency of equity.
1.2 High power distance vs. Low power distance: Some countries use high power distance clarify who the boss is and that they possess the power to make decision, they have more privileges then the employees. In countries with low power distance, the managers seem more equal to the employees to enhance trust in the organization.
1.3 High uncertainty avoidance vs. Low uncertainty avoidance: In countries with high uncertainty avoidance the workers avoid conflicts and follow certain routine in order to lower the possibility of mistakes who are not going to be accepted by others. Quite the opposite, in countries with low uncertainty avoidance, employees tend to accept the individual differences, therefore they take more risks and are considered as more creative.
1.4 Masculinity vs. Femininity: A cultural differences can divide the genders on their responsibilities in life. In masculinity countries the male is the one who works to support the family. In femininity countries the equity is important and the female can be the one who supports the family and the man is the one taking care of the household.
1.5 Long- term orientation vs. Short term orientation: Long- term orientation value the future, while the short term oriented countries the past with their traditions and respect. The study shows the US as the biggest individualists with weak power distance and as a big individualism acceptance they tolerate differences having low uncertainty avoidance. A country where the men are the strong type and support the family, masculinity, as well as short term oriented. 2. What are the primary sources of diversity in the U.S. workplace?
2.1 Cultural diversity, the increased globalization increases all kinds of diversity, including the cultural. One company might have employees from multiple countries working together in one environment. The variety of cultures increases the skills requirements and expectations. For that reason, organizations need to provide different trainings for their employees to keep them well educated. The racial difference is part of the cultural diversity. African American and Hispanic are more likely to live in big cities with higher level of crimes, and lower education, therefore there is lower job opportunities and the number of African American or Hispanic on managing position is low. The managers need to be prepare to deal with the diversity of cultures plus prevent the risk of creation of stereotypes or racial discrimination.
2.2 Gender diversity, through the years the number of occupied women with higher level of education is increased dramatically. More and more women attend collage earning not only bachelor degree but busters and doctorates. Regardless the better education women still cannot bypass the barrier of the middle management. Even after the increased number of women politicians and managers, the benefits and the seleries still remind lower than the men. One of the big challenges for organizations is to promote equal opportunities and benefits for employees no matter of their gender. Women also face the conflict with her domestic responsibilities. Not only women but men also can face gender discrimination when their occupation is in a typical female job, such as nursing or social worker.
2.3. Age diversity, more than ever before the number of middle aged Americans workers and once at 65 years old is raising and the number of young employees is...
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