top-rated free essay

History of Welding

By tosexy252 Apr 12, 2012 917 Words
The history of joining metals goes back several millennia, called forge welding, with the earliest examples of welding from the Bronze Age and the Iron Age in Europe and the Middle East. The ancient Greek historian Herodotus states in The Histories of the 5th century BC that Glaucus of Chios "was the man who single-handedly invented iron-welding."[1] Welding was used in the construction of the iron pillar in Delhi, India, erected about 310 AD and weighing 5.4 metric tons.[2] The Middle Ages brought advances in forge welding, in which blacksmiths pounded heated metal repeatedly until bonding occurred. In 1540, Vannoccio Biringuccio published De la pirotechnia, which includes descriptions of the forging operation.[3] Renaissance craftsmen were skilled in the process, and the industry continued to grow during the following centuries.[3] In 1802, Russian scientist Vasily Petrov discovered the electric arc[4] and subsequently proposed its possible practical applications, including welding. In 1881–82 a Russian inventor Nikolai Benardos created the first electric arc welding method known as carbon arc welding, using carbon electrodes. The advances in arc welding continued with the invention of metal electrodes in the late 1800s by a Russian, Nikolai Slavyanov (1888), and an American, C. L. Coffin (1890). Around 1900, A. P. Strohmenger released a coated metal electrode in Britain, which gave a more stable arc. In 1905 Russian scientist Vladimir Mitkevich proposed the usage of three-phase electric arc for welding. In 1919, alternating current welding was invented by C. J. Holslag but did not become popular for another decade.[5] Resistance welding was also developed during the final decades of the 19th century, with the first patents going to Elihu Thomson in 1885, who produced further advances over the next 15 years. Thermite welding was invented in 1893, and around that time another process, oxyfuel welding, became well established. Acetylene was discovered in 1836 by Edmund Davy, but its use was not practical in welding until about 1900, when a suitable blowtorch was developed.[6] At first, oxyfuel welding was one of the more popular welding methods due to its portability and relatively low cost. As the 20th century progressed, however, it fell out of favor for industrial applications. It was largely replaced with arc welding, as metal coverings (known as flux) for the electrode that stabilize the arc and shield the base material from impurities continued to be developed.[7] World War caused a major surge in the use of welding processes, with the various military powers attempting to determine which of the several new welding processes would be best. The British primarily used arc welding, even constructing a ship, the Fulagar, with an entirely welded hull. Arc welding was first applied to aircraft during the war as well, as some German airplane fuselages were constructed using the process.[8] Also noteworthy is the first welded road bridge in the world, designed by Stefan Bryła of the Warsaw University of Technology in 1927, and built across the river Słudwia Maurzyce near Łowicz, Poland in 1929.[9] During the 1920s, major advances were made in welding technology, including the introduction of automatic welding in 1920, in which electrode wire was fed continuously. Shielding gas became a subject receiving much attention, as scientists attempted to protect welds from the effects of oxygen and nitrogen in the atmosphere. Porosity and brittleness were the primary problems, and the solutions that developed included the use of hydrogen, argon, and helium as welding atmospheres.[10] During the following decade, further advances allowed for the welding of reactive metals like aluminum and magnesium. This in conjunction with developments in automatic welding, alternating current, and fluxes fed a major expansion of arc welding during the 1930s and then during World War II.[11] During the middle of the century, many new welding methods were invented. 1930 saw the release of stud welding, which soon became popular in shipbuilding and construction. Submerged arc welding was invented the same year and continues to be popular today. In 1932 a Russian, Konstantin Khrenov successfully implemented the first underwater electric arc welding. Gas tungsten arc welding, after decades of development, was finally perfected in 1941, and gas metal arc welding followed in 1948, allowing for fast welding of non-ferrous materials but requiring expensive shielding gases. Shielded metal arc welding was developed during the 1950s, using a flux-coated consumable electrode, and it quickly became the most popular metal arc welding process. In 1957, the flux-cored arc welding process debuted, in which the self-shielded wire electrode could be used with automatic equipment, resulting in greatly increased welding speeds, and that same year, plasma arc welding was invented. Electroslag welding was introduced in 1958, and it was followed by its cousin, electrogas welding, in 1961.[12] In 1953 the Soviet scientist N. F. Kazakov proposed the diffusion bonding method.[13] Other recent developments in welding include the 1958 breakthrough of electron beam welding, making deep and narrow welding possible through the concentrated heat source. Following the invention of the laser in 1960, laser beam welding debuted several decades later, and has proved to be especially useful in high-speed, automated welding. Electromagnetic pulse welding is industrially used since 1967. In 1991 friction stir welding was invented in the UK and found high-quality applications all over the world. All of these four new processes continue to be quite expensive due the high cost of the necessary equipment, and this has limited their applications.[14]

Cite This Document

Related Documents

  • Welding

    ...Name Instructor Name Welding 219 06 June 2013 Welding “Welding is a process critical to our present state of civilization and technical advancement, yet little understood and most often taken for granted” (Haynes and Storer 1). We are constantly hearing through television and other media sources that the job market for people trained i...

    Read More
  • welding

    ...Being a welder is a great occupation What is welding, and how does it work? Not many people know what welding is or how it works. According to Mary Bonk“welding is the process of heating and melting metal parts to join them together” (Bonk,3). A welding machine uses electricity to melt the electrode, fusing one piece of metal to ...

    Read More
  • Welding

    ...covers processes such as welding, brazing, soldering, adhesive bonding, and mechanical joining. These processes are an important and necessary aspect of manufacturing operations. This paper deals with one topic in particular ‘Welding’. Welding is a process for joining similar metals. Welding joins metals by melting and fusing the base meta...

    Read More
  • Welding

    ...three types of welding are Mig, Tig, and Stick. All three of these welding styles have special purposes and are widely used in the world. Mig or Metal Inert Gas welding is the most common type of welding. Tig, or Tungsten Inert Gas, welding is the hardest method to learn, but it has the most satisfying finish welds. Stick or Shielded Metal Arc w...

    Read More
  • history

    ...Paper - I 1. Sources: Archaeological sources:Exploration, excavation, epigraphy, numismatics, monuments Literary sources: Indigenous: Primary and secondary; poetry, scientific literature, literature, literature in regional languages, religious literature. Foreign accounts: Greek, Chinese and Arab writers. 2. Pre-history and Proto-history:...

    Read More
  • Welding

    ...TIG welding T ungsten inert gas (TIG) welding is a high quality low deposition rate welding process. It uses an arc struck between a nonconsumable tungsten electrode and the work to fuse the base material and thereby form a welded joint. The TIG welding process may be used on thin sheet material without the addition of a filler ...

    Read More
  • Arc Welding

    ...ARC WELDING ME 353 Presentation 11-3-2000 Presented by Damon Ogden OUTLINE • • • • • • What is Arc Welding The four most common types Non destructive testing Design considerations Strength Safety Feel free to ask questions at any questions at any time. Arc Welding • Welcome to the world of WELDING What is Arc Welding...

    Read More
  • Mig Welding

    ...What is MIG Welding? Metal Inert Gas (MIG) welding, also sometimes called Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW) is a process that was developed in the 1940s for welding aluminum and other non-ferrous metals. MIG welding is an automatic or semi-automatic process in which a wire connected to a source of direct current acts as an electrode to join two piec...

    Read More

Discover the Best Free Essays on StudyMode

Conquer writer's block once and for all.

High Quality Essays

Our library contains thousands of carefully selected free research papers and essays.

Popular Topics

No matter the topic you're researching, chances are we have it covered.