13 May 2015
HIST 201 – Final Exam
Part I: Identifications
(1) Industrial Revolution – The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes. (2) Judicial Review – A power implied in the Constitution that gives federal courts the right to review and determine the constitutionality of acts passed by Congress and state legislatures. (3) Three-fifths Compromise – A compromise reached between delegates from southern states and those from northern states during the 1787 United States Constitutional Convention. (4) Manifest Destiny – Doctrine, first expressed in 1845, that the expansion of white Americans across the continent was inevitable and ordained by God. (5) War of 1812 – War fought between the United States and Britain from June 1812 to January 1815 largely over British restrictions on Americans shipping. (6) Indentured Servitude – Was the primary labor system in the Chesapeake colonies for most of the seventeenth century. (7) Electoral College – The institution that elects the President and Vice President of the United States every four years. (8) Whigs – The name used by advocates of colonial resistance to British measures during the 1760s and 1770s. (9) Checks and Balances – The system used to keep the government from becoming too powerful in one branch. (10) Imperialism – The policy and practice of exploiting nations and peoples for the benefit of an imperial power either directly through military occupation and colonial rule or indirectly through economic domination of resources and markets.
Part II: Short Response Essay
(1) Why did lawmakers replace the Articles of Confederation with the U.S. Constitution? The Constitution placed both internal and external restraints on the powers granted to the central government which the Articles of Confederation did not. The Articles of Confederation left the republic helpless to deal with the threat of foreign encroachments and the problems of unpaid debts, a weak economy, and social unrest. Also, the Constitution specifically delegated to Congress the powers to tax, borrow and coin money, regulate commerce, and raise armed forces, all of which the Confederation government had lacked.
(2) How did the presidency of Andrew Jackson alter the role of American citizens in the political process? First, Jackson declared that his party was made up of ordinary farmers and workers. He opposed the special privileges of economic elites. Also, he offered affordable western land to Americans by forcing Indians to the west.
(3) Describe life of American women during the colonial era. Women cultivated genteel manners. Very few women could read and write, for it was assumed that women had little need of such accomplishments. Their ability to read and write were far less in percentage of that of the men.
(4) What events contributed the American Revolution? Parliament’s refusal to consider conciliatory measures was a factor. Also, British policies were contradictory which was causing rebellion. Lastly, The Battle of Lexington and Concord contributed.
(5) What was the role of the Federalist Papers in the ratification of the U.S. Constitution? The role was to gain support for ratification of US Constitution. Essays in the newspapers with analysis and explanation of Constitution. The federalist had the wealth and support which helped them make for a successful campaign.
Part III: Long Response Essay
(1) Write an essay summarizing the role of slavery, state rights, and westward expansion in the Civil War. When the North American continent was first colonized by Europeans, the land was vast, the work was harsh, and there was a severe shortage of labor. Men and women were needed to work the land. White bond servants, paying their passage across the ocean from Europe through indentured labor, eased but did not solve the problem. Early in the seventeenth century, a Dutch ship loaded with...
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