The Concept Analysis of Health Promotion
Health promotion (HP) is a multi-dimensional and complex concept which the researcher is frequently used and defined in different ways. One of the nursing roles for nurses is the promoter of health; therefore it would be useful to attempt to clarify the concept. This article develops a concept analysis is to clarify the meaning of an existing concept of HP using the process developed by Pender, Murdaugh, and Parsons (2006). The method suggested by Walker and Avant guided this concept analysis. Attributes, model cases, antecedents and consequences, and empirical references are described. The implications for further research are also described.
Keywords: Health Promotion Model, Concept analysis
The Concept Analysis of Health Promotion
I. Introduction to the Concepts
Nursing is one profession that has its own theories. Nursing theorists attempt to develop the beneficial nursing concepts for many reasons, such as explaining phenomena, providing frameworks for nursing practices and research, and representing patterns of health and therapeutics. Health promotion is one of the important concepts that is frequently used by nurse researchers for developing and testing propositions that are related to clinical practices. The health promotion concept appeared in nursing literature in the early 1980s by Nola J. Pender, the nurse theorist who integrated nursing and behavioral science perspectives and factors that influence health behavior. This model integrates a number of constructs from expectancy-value theory and social learning theory (social cognitive theory). The initial formation of this model described the potential of seven cognitive-perceptual factors and five modifying factors that explained and predicted health behavior.1 Since then, the health promotion concept was tested by many researchers. In 1996, it was refined to focus on ten categories of determinants of health-promoting behavior. It identified concepts relevant to health-promoting behaviors and facilitated the generation of testable hypotheses.2 The book “Health Promotion in Nursing Practice” states that “the health promotion concept is applicable to any health behavior in which threat is not proposed as a major source of motivation for the behavior.” 3 Therefore, it is clear that the health promotion model is the concept of improving health, the prevention of disease, and/or the promotion of positive health. However, many recent studies of health promotion were completed by nurse specialists who focus on particular diseases, for example, hypertensions, diabetes, and cancers. This can lead to the risk of misconception that the study may focus on the management of illness, rather than focusing on a concept of health promotion, which promotes positive health and well-being.4-6 Initially, health promotion concept was analyzed before use as a framework for research, teaching, administration, and consultation. Walker and Avant7 state that “Concepts are not caved in stone and the analysts change overtime.” For this reason, concept analysis is used to encourage an understanding of health promotion. This report develops a concept analysis of health promotion using the strategies for theory construction in nursing, developed by Walker and Avant. The purpose of this report is to analyze the health promotion concept and to explore implications for future nursing dissertation research of this concept.
II. Identification of Uses of the Concept
When we are involved in health promotion we should consider the meaning of health, because a focused definition classifies our work and enhances the quality of the health care system. Even though health promotion is two words, it can be considered the term in one idea. I break it down into the components of ‘health’ and ‘promotion’ to identify the term and put them together to define this concept.
Definition of health
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