detailed procedure and scheme of the apparatus
any changes to the original procedure, actual masses, and obs yield calculations and mp
Grignard rxn (what is it used for, why important, the mechanism) Reaction set up (important details)
How can the rxn be activated
Second step: rxn of the Grignard reagent with acetophenone, quenching with ammonium chloride Isolation of the product, identification
Possible or actual sources of error
Part one of our experiment consisted of the preparation of phenylmagnesium bromide from bromobenzene. PhMgBr is an organometallic reagent, a class of nucleophile known as a Grignard reagent. Gringard reagents are a class of extremely reactive chemical compounds used in the synthesis of hydrocarbons, alcohols, carboxylic acids, and other compounds. A gringard reagent is an organic magnesium halide dissolved in a nonreactive solvent (like diethyl ether). The substance is made up of an organic group joined by a high polar covalent bond to magnesium, while magnesium is joined by an ionic bond to a halogen (like bromide) a gringard reagent will react with water, oxygen or almost any other electrophilic organic compound to produce alcohols, which makes it important in laboratories.
Organometallic reagents are strong bases that readily abstract a proton from H2O to form hydrocarbons because H2O is a stronger acid than the alkane product of the acid-base reaction. Similar reactions occur with the O-H proton in alcohols and carboxylic acids. Because of this, at the very beginning of our experiment, moisture was removed as it would react with our highly basic Gringard Reagents and destroy it. Thus a drying tube is necessary to remove any water that may be contained in our system. N2 was also blown through the apparatus to clear all of the atmospheric gasses (including H2O) from the apparatus.
In the formation of a Grignard reagent (RMgX) chemists sometimes use a chemical additive to...
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