Gough’s Definition of Needs and His Different Categories for Basic Human Needs

Topics: Poverty, Maslow's hierarchy of needs, Iran Pages: 3 (1027 words) Published: December 30, 2010
In this essay I will be looking at Gough’s definition of needs and his different categories for basic human needs, whilst briefly examining his moral argument for welfare; I will then concentrate on the Islamic republic of Iran, analysing its social security and welfare system, investigating the ways in which Iran’s government attempts to provide these rights for its citizens. This then leads me to consider the criticisms made against Iran’s government for its lack of support and the rising number of people living below the absolute poverty line. As according to Gough’s study on human needs, human needs differ from their wants in the sense that wants are more inclusive and although an individual can be harmed as a result being denied of their wants, one is in risk of significant harm when denied their needs. Needs are also different from preferences, as preferences are only revealed to the individual once they have made choices. Doyal and Gough identified eleven categories of fundamental human needs; these include nutritional food, clean water, protective shelter, security in childhood and significant primary relationships, which in the majority of cases, are offered to individuals by the family. This is followed by a non-hazardous work environment, a non-hazardous physical environment, appropriate health care, appropriate education, safe birth control & child bearing, physical security and emotional and economic security which are the responsibility of the government. Gough’s moral argument for welfare suggests that a membership within a group implies duties and responsibilities towards the group. Ascribing duties to any member would presume that the individual is able to perform the duties. If we apply this initiative to each society, then in order for each individual to be able to carry out their obligations to the state, it is the state’s responsibility to provide need satisfiers. In order to ensure that individuals are dedicated active members of the...
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