Give an Account of How Enzymes Work with Particular Reference to Factors That Affect Their Activities.

Topics: Enzyme, Catalysis, Chemical reaction Pages: 1 (1063 words) Published: May 7, 2013
Question Give an account of how enzymes work with particular reference to factors that affect their  activities.  Answer  All living things require catalysts to catalyse the reaction which they carry out to survive. Enzymes  are the catalysts of biological systems without enzymes reactions in cells would occur all much to  slow a rate and the organism would not survive. Most enzymes, with the exception of some RNA  catalysts, are proteins. They often require a co factor such as zinc or iron, or a complete organic  molecule called a co enzyme in order to work. Sometimes they require both. The complete active  complex of the enzyme is called the haloenzyme, the protein part is called an apoenzyme.   Enzymes work by providing an alternative environment in which a reaction can occur more quickly. A  particular part of the enzyme, called the active site is where the actual catalysis occurs. It is lined by  acid residues whose side chains contain functional groups which help in catalysing the reaction. The  substance which binds to the active site and undergoes the reaction is called the substrate.  Sometimes the active site folds completely around the substrate, sequestering it from solution and  providing it with a completely different environment in which it can undergo reaction much more  quickly. The complex formed by the substitute and enzyme active site, the enzyme substrate  complex (first proposed in 1880 by C.A. Wortz) is essential to enzyme activity.   The modern theory of enzyme action was proposed in 1930 by Haldane and collaborated on by  Pauling. In this induced fit theory the substrate and enzyme active site do not initially have  complementarity to each other. However the substrate is then bent to fit the shape of the active  site. Thus the enzymes active site is complementary to the reaction transition state. This optimises  enzyme substrate interactions during the actual stage when the substrate is undergoing reaction ...
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