Gender Identity

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Topics: Gender, Sex, Gender role
Sex is biological but gender is psycho-sociocultural. Gender means being male or female and defined by social status, roles and attitudes about the sexes. Specifically, gender is culturally based explanations of male and female behaviors such as careers. Gender identity is defined as perception of oneself (Segall, Dasen, Poortinga, & Berry, 1999). This paper will discuss gender identity to include hormone and behavior interaction. As well as examine psychological, environmental and biological influences on sexual differentiation.
The Interaction between Hormones and Behavior
Studies have shown hormonal processes influence exhibits of hostility. Further suggesting aggression relations could imitate processes of sexual maturation and genetic characteristics. Many of the studies on hormones connect aggression to influences of androgens, specifically testosterone. Hypotheses have been established determining hormones influence degree of aggressive behaviorthrough their effects on emotions. Which results in the antagonistic effects on the expression of aggression, in turn activating influences stem from contemporaneous effects hormones on behavior, but may be affected by earlier organizational influences (Inoff-Germain, Chrousos, Arnold, Nottelmann, & Cutler, 1988).
Hormones and Behavior Interaction Affects on Gender Identity
Hormones are chemicals that combine with programmed cell receptors and respond accordingly. The most critical periods for hormonal effect on humans are puberty and prenatal periods. According to John Money’s studies prenatal hormonal anomalies result in confused sexual identity. The study discovered 25 fetal androgenized girls raised as girls were considered tomboys by their peers. They resembled their male counterpart in attitudes, grooming, achievement and sexuality. Several case studies followed Money’s theories and raised significant questions about genetic and environmental roles in gender identity (Hetherington & Parke, 2002).



References: Bland, J. (n.d.). Freud, the Father of Psychoanalysis. Retrieved January 31, 2009, from http://www.gender.org.uk/about/01psanal/11_freud.htm Gollnick, D. M., & Chinn, P. C. (2009). Multicultural Education in a Pluralistic Society (8th ed.). : Pearson Merrill. Hetherington, M., & Parke, R. (2002). Child Psychology: A Contemporary Viewpoint (5th ed.). : McGraw-Hill. Inoff-Germain, G., Chrousos, G., Arnold, G., Nottelmann, E., & Cutler, G. (1988). Relations between hormone levels and observational measures of aggressive behavior of young adolescents in family interactions. Developmental Psychology,24, 129-139. Segall, M., Dasen, P., Poortinga, Y., & Berry, J. (1999). Human Behavior in Global Perspective: An Introduction to Cross-Cultural Psychology (2nd ed.). : Pearson Education Company.

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