PRINCIPLES OF MANAGEMENT
FREDRICK TAYLOR’S PRINCPLES OF SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT
BACHELORS OF BUSINESS AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY
TABLE OF CONTENTS
The four scientific management principles
Taylorism Influence on other countries
Critiques on Taylorism
Fredrick Taylor was born in the year 1856 In a Quaker family, Germantown, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Taylor came to be regarded as one of the efficiency movement, with his ideas he broadly influencing the progressive era. After Taylor completed his learning he went for an apprenticeship for four years with a group of New England machine-tool manufactures at Philadelphia’s centennial exposition. It was in 1878 that Taylor began working as a machine-shop laborer at Midvale Steel Works.
During his work time at Midvale, Taylor began to recognize the concept of soldiering amongst the company. A concept of which one intentionally restricts labor productivity; or to work at the slowest rate that goes unpunished. Taylor noticed that the high cost labor for the company was as a result of workers not working themselves or their machines as much as they were expected to.
The soldering concept came about the 19th century was due to the economic growth of capitalism in America. Companies were hiring workmen at a very high rate but their wasn’t an implemented system of how to manage effectively the incoming workforce. The workforce lacked a motive or incentive to work for, thus the company’s productivity declining.
It was in 1881 when Taylor was the foreman at Midvale that he introduced time study at the company. He expected a lot more output from the workers, and also wanted to study and analyze how much time both the worker and machine took to complete a task and that way he would determine ones expected productivity.
His main study on the human component in terms of production became to be regarded as the scientific management, while his study on the machine component was lead to his metal-cutting and material innovations.
In one of Taylor’s experiments he used a shovel design which he would modify until he had a design that would allow workers to shovel for several hours straight. With the use of bricklayers, he experimented with the various motions required and developed an efficient way to lay bricks. Taylor applied the scientific method to study to try and find an optimal way to do any type of work. Concluding from his research, he found that by calculating the time needed for the various elements of a task, he could develop the "best" way to complete that task.
With the use of "time and motion" studies, Taylor came to realize that certain people could work more efficiently than others. He concluded that these were the people whom managers should seek to hire where possible. Therefore, the selection of the right people For the job was another important part of workplace efficiency. Taylor took what he learned from these workplace experiments, and developed four principles of scientific management. These principles are referred to as "Taylorism". Taylor’s principles of management
1. Having to replace the “rule-of-thumb” work methods with methods that are scientific.
2. Instead of having employees train themselves, one is to use scientific ways to select, train and develop them.
3. As a manager one is to monitor workers performance, provide instructions and supervision to ensure that workers are using the most effective ways of working. 4. The allocation of work is to be done between the managers and workers, so as to have manager’s work on planning and training and thus having the workers perform their work effectively....
Bibliography: The principles at a viewpoint
During Taylor’s regime, right after the American civil war (1861-1965), the
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