Foundation of Psychology
University of Phoenix
October 19, 2013
Psychology has come a long way; “American psychology at the start of the 20th Century was the psychology of human consciousness and mental life” (Davis, Stephen F. & Buskist, William, and 21st. Century Psychology: A Reference Handbook, February 19, 2008). Introspection was the first study of psychology; follow came Structuralism and Functionalism, Behavioral, Humanism, Psychoanalysis, and cognitive; these are the major school of thoughts of psychology. Before psychology was born, specialist would study the biological process of the nervous system and chemicals, called biopsychology. Altogether is the “Foundation of Psychology.” Introspection
A man from Leizig, Germany was the first that founded psychological laboratory. He study what went through peoples mines when they were completing a task. Wilhelm Wundt called these studies introspection, what is our min “The inner world cannot be observed with the aid of our sensory organs” (Kohut, Heinz, Introspection, Empathy, and Psychoanalysis an Examination of the Relationship between Mode of Observation and Theory, October 17, 2013). “Our thoughts, wishes, feelings, and fantasies cannot be seen, smelled, heard, or touched” (Kohut, Heinz, Introspection, Empathy, and Psychoanalysis an Examination of the Relationship between Mode of Observation and Theory, October 17, 2013). “This is observation by an individual of his own conscious action” (Myerson, Abraham, The Foundations of Personality, 2005). “It is also called subjective observation; it is a direct observation of fact” (Myerson, Abraham, The Foundations of Personality, 2005). “Psychology is a part of the scientific study of life, being the science of mental life” (Myerson, Abraham, The Foundations of Personality, 2005). What Introspection was looking at in people were a study outside the realm. Structuralism-Functionalism
After Introspection came structuralism-functionalism advocated by a student of Wilhelm Wundt named of Edward Tichener. Edward Tichener was fascinated to study the structure of people’s consciousness so he developed a periodic table. “The overall purpose of this research was to analyze human conscious experience into its fundamental structural components” (Myerson, Abraham, The Foundations of Personality, 2005). “Titchener eventually concluded that these basic elements were sensations (the basic element underlying perception), images the basic elements of thought, and the affective states of pleasantness and unpleasantness (the basic element of emotion)” (Myerson, Abraham, The Foundations of Personality, 2005). “For Titchener, the new psychology was to be the study of the basic structure of adult human consciousness to be studied in the laboratory using precise instruments (e.g., chronoscopes for measuring the amount of time it took to respond to various stimuli”) (Myerson, Abraham, The Foundations of Personality, 2005). “Titchener was responsible for making psychology scientific-for setting psychology up in the laboratory and reaching his conclusions through experiment, under controlled conditions (Hindeland, 1971, p28”) (Myerson, Abraham, The Foundations of Personality, 2005). On the other hand, “Functionalists believed that, rather than the study of structure of human consciousness, psychology’s goal ought to be to understand how human conscious experience enables the organism to adapt to the environment and thereby prosper” (Myerson, Abraham, The Foundations of Personality, 2005). Functionalism was more interested in study how the process played out in the mind instead of focusing on the mental process. How people or children learned and how they adapted to that learning and the development in them. Structuralism where more in the study of how people’s thoughts processed and the Functionalists study on how the mind worked, why we have a mind and what is our mind for....
References: 1. Davis, Stephen F., & Buskist, William. (February 19, 2008). 21st Century Psychology: A Reference Handbook, http://dx:doi.org/10.413519781412956321.
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4. Myerson, Abraham, (2005). The Foundations of Personality. New York, NY: Cosimo, INC.
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