# Fishbone Diagram Bibliography

Topics: Ishikawa diagram, Diagram, Seven Basic Tools of Quality Pages: 8 (2523 words) Published: August 16, 2013
Fishbone Diagram
J. Reszka
Saint Mary's University of Minnesota
Schools of Graduate & Professional Programs
Project Integration and Quality – PRM613R
Michael Brown, M.A., M.S., Adjunct Instructor
April 4th, 2013

Fishbone Diagram (Cause/Effect Diagram or Ishikawa Diagram)
Introduction
Fishbone Diagrams also known as Cause and Effect Diagrams or Ishikawa Diagrams are a quality tool that illustrates how various factors may be linked to potential problems or effects (Project Management Institute, 2008). The diagram is called a fishbone diagram due to the fact that it looks like the bones of a fish. Fishbone diagrams are drawn with the effect of a problem on the right side of the illustration, drawn back from the effect is a main line, and from that line are offshoots labeled for potential causes of the problem. The main inputs for a fishbone diagram are known as the “5 M’s”: Machinery, Manpower, Materials, Methods, and Money (Diagram 1). These have also been simplified to People, Systems, Materials and Processes by the Hewlett Packard Company (Slack, 2001). These inputs are guidelines for causes; each case should have a more descriptive cause for each of the subgroups. Once you have the main causes for the problem, you continually ask “why” or “how” until you have uncovered the root cause. The outputs for the fishbone diagram should be a few root causes of the problem (effect). One drawback of the fishbone diagram is that you have no statistical data to quantify the weight of the outputs as you would with something like a Pareto Chart.

The five Ss of retail operations: a model and tool for improvement Overview
The article is written by John W. Pal and John W. Byrom and covers the “Five S’s of Retail Operations” which are Systems, Staff, Stock, Space and Standards. These five categories are used as the cause of “Shoppers’ Benefits” which Pal and Byrom state are: attraction, retention and satisfaction, without these benefits a retailer would not survive. This article ties in with Quality Management by showing two examples of how lack of stock can affect the retail experience of a shopper. For the interest of space I will be focusing on only example one.

Inputs and Outputs
In the article Pal and Byrom manipulate the tool to help them produce the desired level of effectiveness. By removing the “Five M’s” and replacing them with the “Five S’s”, they have tailored the tool to their area of expertise, this can be done for any situation. By removing the ambiguous terms of Money, Machine, etc. and replacing them with more descriptive and appropriate headings, they have made the tool more useful, and it should produce more precise results. As with all fishbone diagrams, they are best used in a group setting, using a brainstorming session to come up with causes for a certain problem. In Example One, Pal and Byrom show how inaccurate inventory records and misplaces SKUs in a store were affecting the retail business. There were two main problems uncovered. The first was that physical inventory was different than that of the electronic records which lead to incorrect ordering and re-ordering. The second was stock being misplaced within the store, leading to bad stock counts and customers not being able to find what they were looking for. By using the fishbone diagram with the five S model to address these problems, they found that the main cause for not being able to provide shoppers’ benefits was lack of available stock; this is shown in Diagram 3. Going on, Pal and Byrom explain that many problems led to this one issue, such as, poor operating standards. Not having correct standards in place for stocking (either on the sales floor or in the stockroom) or scanning of items led to incorrect inventory records and thus loss of money. This falls directly under Quality Management, by focusing on operational standards in training beginning day one with a new hire, this should minimize the...

References: Project Management Institute (PMI). (2008). A guide to the project management body of knowledge (PMBOK guide). Philadelphia, PA: Author.
John W. Pal, John W. Byrom, (2003) "The five Ss of retail operations: a model and tool for improvement", International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, Vol. 31 Iss: 10, pp.518 – 528.
Pal and Byrom, 2003
Diagram 3 – Fishbone Diagram from Example One – Five S’s of Retail Operations
Pal and Byrom, 2003
Diagram 4 – Fishbone Diagram – Possible causes of unnecessary repeat lab tests
Taner, Sezen, Antony, 2007
Diagram 5 – Potential factors affecting image quality of MR
Taner, Sezen, Antony, 2007
Diagram 6
Taner, Sezen, Antony, 2007
Diagram 7
Taner, Sezen, Antony, 2007
Diagram 8
Taner, Sezen, Antony, 2007