Inter country adoption has appealed to the public consciousness in two contradictory ways. Inter country adoption is presented as a heart heating act of good will that benefits both child and adoptive family on the one hand. The child is characterized as a bereft orphan doomed to a dismal future within a poor country. All the child is a chance and a home and that is provided to him by the adoptive parents , who with their love, sympathy and compassion provide the child with a new life. In contrast to the positive face of adoption are numerous malicious gossips and horror narrations concerning inter country adoption. Adoption is portrayed as child trafficking or baby selling and purchasing. Culpable figures buy, steal, or kidnap children from poor families in developing nations for sale to adoptive families in rich nations. SCANDOLOUS ANDHRA PRADESH
This essay uses the recurrent adoption scandals in Andhra Pradesh, India, as a case study of these two faces of inter country adoption. The Andhra Pradesh adoption scandals are significant in several ways. The United States and India have documented a cyclic series of adoption scandals from the South Indian state of Andhra Pradesh , particularly between the period of 1995-2001. Several orphanages in that area systematically sent out scouts to purchase infants from poverty stricken and vulnerable families. The identities of the children were then altered and falsified documents were made. Credulous adoption agencies from various countries supported and partnered these indian orphanages and thus participated in laundering of these children as ‘orphans’. Therefor the Andhra Pradesh scandals are a heinous example of the ‘child buying’ scandal. Generally, receiving countries do not know the details of the scandals taking place in sending countries. The aim of this article is to give the reader an inside view of an adoption scandal and to explain how the system deals with the scandal. There is proof and evidence that Indian agencies also obtained children through the various forms of child-stealing and kidnaping describing above, including misrepresentations to birth parents, taking children placed temporarily for care and education and sending them for adoption, and changing the identities of missing or lost children in order to place them for adoption as orphans. Just as the situation was in Cambodia, the United States officials virtually accepted all the “stolen and kidnapped” infants and provided them with visa, despite the suspicion of one United States government official who slowed down the granting of visa to such adopted infants in 1995-1996. Unlike Cambodia, the criminal enforcement arm of immigration (ICE) never investigated the situation in India, perhaps because there is no indication of any intentional or knowing involvement of United States citizens. The government of Andhra Pradesh responded to the events not by regulatory reforms but by simply stopping the practice of placing children internationally. The judiciary in Andhra Pradesh voiced their opinions about the ‘adoption related’ litigation that cam their way and were convinced that the inter country adoption system in Andhra Pradesh was subject to systematic abuse and the regulatory authority could not stop them. The criminal justice system in Andhra Pradesh has, by comparison, had a mixed record in regard to the scandals, perhaps because of the difficulty of winning criminal convictions in India. Thus, the authorities within Andhra Pradesh often failed to secure criminal convictions, even against the orphanage directors who are broadly viewed as the ringleaders of criminal conspiracies to procure children illegally and profiteer from inter country adoption. The criminal justice system in Andhra Pradesh has had a rather mixed record in regard to the scandals, perhaps because of the difficulty of winning criminal convictions in India. Thus, the authorities within Andhra Pradesh often have failed...
Please join StudyMode to read the full document