Experiment #8: Limiting Reactant

Powerful Essays
Experiment #8: Limiting Reactant

Abstract
In chemical reactions, the significance of knowing the limiting reactant is high. In order to increase the percent yield of product, increasing the limiting reactant, possibly, is the most effective. In this experiment we were able to calculate limiting reactants from the reaction of CaCl2. 2H2O + K2C2O4.H2O(aq). As a group, we obtained our salt mixture of calcium chloride and potassium oxalate, and weighed the mixture. We were able to make an aqueous solution from the mixture and distilled water. We boiled and filtered off the solution, leaving the precipitate. Once the precipitate was dried overnight, it was weighed and the mass was measured. Then we calculated the moles of the precipitate.
From these calculations, we established moles of the limiting reactant, were the same amount of moles in the product based on the stoichiometrically balanced equation. Next the percent yield of the limiting reactant was calculated.
In Part B of this experiment, two solutions were added to the aqueous product in order to determine the limiting reactant. Once each solution was added, we were able to visibly see the precipitate forming when 0.5 M CaCl2 was added. This made us conclude the limiting reactant was in fact CaCl2.
Introduction
Stoichiometry is a section of chemistry that involves using relationships between reactants and/or products in a chemical reaction to determine desired quantitative data. Doing stoichiometry can calculate masses, moles, and percent’s with a chemical equation. The use of stoichiometry is how we were able to find the limiting reagent in this lab. We know that the limiting reagent is the chemical that will be used up first.
Two factors affect the yield of product in a chemical reaction: the amounts of starting materials and the percent yield of the reaction. Under certain conditions such as temperature and pressure, can be adjusted to increase the yield of a desired product in a chemical reaction



References: Tro, Nivaldo. Chemistry A Molecular Approach. 3rd ed. Boston, MA: Pearson Education, Inc.; Beran, J. A. Laboratory Manual for Principles of General Chemistry. 8th ed. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2009 Beran, J. A. Laboratory Manual for Principles of General Chemistry. 9th ed. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley; 2010 UC Davis ChemWiki. Stoichiometry and Balancing Reactions. http://chemwiki.ucdavis.edu/Analytical_Chemistry/Chemical_Reactions/Stoichiometry_and_Balancing_Reactions UCCS Chem 103 Laboratory Manual. Experiment 3 Limiting Reactants. http://www.uccs.edu/Documents/chemistry/nsf/103%20Expt3V-LR.pdf Masterson, W, Hurley, C. Chemistry: Principles and Reactions. 6th ed. Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole Cengage Learning; 2009.

You May Also Find These Documents Helpful

  • Good Essays

    Limiting Reactants

    • 683 Words
    • 4 Pages

    ____________________________ Objectives: (1) To determine the amount of NaHCO3 in Alka Seltzer tablets by observing the amount of CO2 produced from the acid-base reaction of HCO3- with acetic acid (in vinegar). (2) To study the concept of limiting reactant. Background: Alka Seltzer is an effervescent tablet that contains aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid), citric acid, and sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3). As soon as the tablet dissolves in water, the NaHCO3 dissociates to form a bicarbonate ion (HCO3-)…

    • 683 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Satisfactory Essays

    Limiting Reactant Lab

    • 397 Words
    • 2 Pages

    During this lab, we found the excess reactant and limiting reactant between Aluminum and Copper (ll) Chloride. Using stoichiometry, we were able to make predictions. Through the reaction 2Al + 2CuCl₂ → 3Cu + 2AlCl₃ we carried out this experiment and determined that the limiting reactant was CuCl₂ and that the aluminum was in excess. We also determined the percentage yield of copper. Purpose: The purpose of this experiment was to determine the limiting reactant and percentage yield of the reaction…

    • 397 Words
    • 2 Pages
    Satisfactory Essays
  • Good Essays

    Limiting Reactant Lab

    • 1092 Words
    • 5 Pages

    The Relationship between Reactants and Products Introduction In a chemical reaction, the amount of starting material for a chemical reaction limits the amount of product that can be formed.1 The principle of limiting reactants relates to this lab because the limiting reactant is the substance that is used up first in a chemical reaction. The amount of product was limited by that reagent. The excess reactants were considered to be the other reagents that were presented in excess of the quantity that…

    • 1092 Words
    • 5 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Good Essays

    Observing a Limiting Reactant An experiment was carried out to predict the limiting reactant in a chemical reaction between Magnesium and Hydrochloric acid, using the mole concept. Limiting Reactant: It is the reactant that will deplete or will be used up first during a chemical reaction. Limiting reactant also determine how long the reaction will last for. Balanced Equation: Mg + 2HCl = MgCl2 + H2 The balanced equation is needed to determine the mole ratio between the two reactants. From the…

    • 678 Words
    • 3 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Good Essays

    Limiting Reactants Lab

    • 639 Words
    • 3 Pages

    19/9/12 LAB REPORT #1 LIMITING REAGENTS INVESTIGATION Aim: To determine the limiting reagent and percent yield of the reaction between potassium iodide with lead (II) nitrate solution. Apparatus required: Safety glasses, funnel stands, watch glass, oven, electronic balance, wash bottle with distilled water, test tubes, 10.0mL 0.50M lead (II) nitrate, 10.0mL 0.30M of potassium iodide solution, two 100.0 mL beakers, funnel, filter paper. Reaction Involved in Experiment: 2KI +…

    • 639 Words
    • 3 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Good Essays

    Introduction The experiment is testing for the formation of precipitates caused by different limiting reactants. A precipitate results in a solid formed by an ionic compound. Calcium nitrate and copper sulfate will be added to separate beakers with approximately half of the solutions from the Büchner funnel system of each trial to test for the formation of precipitates. The limiting reactant is the reactant that will run out first in the chemical reaction. It is important to recognize which chemical…

    • 792 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Good Essays

    Objectives and background In an experiment, limiting reactant affect the “amount of the product.” In the other way, the product this reaction produce dependent on the limiting reactant. For example, 1000kg O2 and 1 gram H2 to form water. In this case, the 1 gram of H2 will be the limiting reactant. Same thing in displacement reactant. If one of the reactants is (Mole) less than the other one, then that reactants becomes the limiting reactants. Once the limiting reactants will completely be ran out of…

    • 706 Words
    • 3 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Satisfactory Essays

    In a chemical reaction the reactant that runs out first is called the limiting reactant. A personal example would be when I am making candles. I have melted 20 lbs. of wax that yield 24 16 oz. size candle jars. As I am gluing the wicks into the jars I realize that I only have 20 wicks and I need 24 for the amount of wax that I have melted. This means that the wicks are the limiting reactant in my candle making.…

    • 83 Words
    • 1 Page
    Satisfactory Essays
  • Powerful Essays

    Investigation 3 Determine the Limiting Reagent Chemistry Investigation 3 Limiting Reagents Aim: To determine the limiting reagent in a reaction. Hypothesis: if the number of moles of the solutions added together equals the stoichiometry ratio in the balanced equation, then we would not expect a limiting reagent in the reaction. Independent variable: The number of moles of the reactants Dependent Variable: The limiting reagent Constant Variable: The volume of reactants added Equipment:…

    • 1292 Words
    • 6 Pages
    Powerful Essays
  • Powerful Essays

    Experiment 8

    • 555 Words
    • 3 Pages

    Purpose This experiment shows how different concentrations of acids and bases in a solution affect its pH level. When acids and bases are combined in a solution, they neutralize each other. This means that depending on the concentration of both acids and bases in a solution, the pH will vary. A neutral pH level is 7; anything below that level is known as an acidic solution, while anything above is known as a basic solution. To find out the pH, the solutions will be diluted and tested with different…

    • 555 Words
    • 3 Pages
    Powerful Essays