Exam 2008 Answer Key

Topics: Cancer, Immune system, Vaccine Pages: 13 (2650 words) Published: June 29, 2011
BIOE 301/362Name:
Exam 2
March 13, 2008

The exam consists of 10 questions. Show all work to receive credit. Clearly organize your work and draw a box around your final answers. NEATNESS COUNTS! Good Luck!

Problem 1 (5):

Problem 2 (18):

Problem 3 (12):

Problem 4 (15):

Problem 5 (8):

Problem 6 (12):

Problem 7 (12):

Problem 8 (18):

Extra Credit (4):

Total (100):

PROBLEM 1: Development of technology (5 points total)
Eureka! You have just created what could be an HIV vaccine. Describe the steps which you must undertake before you can obtain FDA approval to market this vaccine.

Pre clinical testing in animals
Phase I testing in healthy volunteers to monitor safety
Phase II testing to monitor safety and efficacy
Phase III testing to monitor safety and efficacy
FDA submission for approval to market

PROBLEM 2: Multiple choice. 3 pts each (18 points total).

a. Bordetella pertussis and Influenza A virus are examples of respiratory pathogens; bacterial and viral, respectively. As such, they can both:

Reproduce extracellularly, in saliva and lung fluids

Be killed with antibiotics

Reproduce inside lung cells

Cause inflammation and coughing

Answer:d (viruses can’t reproduce outside cells, or be killed with antibiotics, bordatella can’t reproduce inside lung cells, so the only common thing between them is causing inflammation)

b. If a pathogen penetrates the skin barrier, which of the following action (s) will your immune system take as a first step to fight infection:

Activate B-cells to generate antibodies against it

Activate T-cell responses to kill infected cells

Launch macrophages and inflammatory molecules to signal infection

Release platelets to drive coagulation and prevent the pathogen from entering the blood flow

Answer: c (innate imunity-macrophages and inflammation- is the first response after a skin barrier is bypassed)

c. During HIV infection, HIV surface glycoproteins mediate which step(s):

Viral binding and fusion

Reverse transcription

Integration into cellular DNA

Synthesis of new viral particles & poly-protein cleavage through viral proteases

Answer: a

d. As part of the adaptive immune response, activated T cells kill:

Infected cells

Viral particles

Bacteria

All of the above

Answer: a (they never kill isolated virus or bacteria)

e. The Gardasil vaccine has been recently licensed to prevent infection with four strains of human papilloma virus (HPV). The vaccine does not use any live virus or a killed virus, so it cannot cause disease. Which type of vaccine meets this criteria and would be effective against the virus?

Carrier vaccine

Toxoid vaccine

Subunit vaccine

Inactivated virus vaccine

Answer: c. Both toxoid and subunit vaccines are virus-free (no alive or killed virus in them). Viruses don’t make toxins, so a toxoid vaccine would not be effective vs. HPV, and only the subunit would work.

f. Through his unethical experiment Edward Jenner made the first smallpox vaccine. The material that he used to inoculate his patients was:

A carrier vaccine

A subunit vaccine

An inactivated virus vaccine

A live attenuated virus vaccine

Answer: d. he had no technology, so toxoid, subunit or recombinant carrier vaccines which require purification steps and genetic engineering are out. He did not further process the virus he obtained from the scabs of cowpox lesions before using it in his patients, so its not inactivated. Cowpox virus acts as a live attenuated version of small pox

PROBLEM 3: (12 points total)

a. Name and explain in one sentence the 2 functions of antibodies in the immune system. (3 pts)

Answer: They neutralize (prevent binding of pathogen or...
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