The teacher is considered a model: the teacher talks and the students listen and repeat (instructions in phonics – drilling can also be taught using teacher-centered instruction).
Other aspects that can be taught using teacher centered instruction are writing, spelling, reading comprehension and also problem solving activities. Here it can be seen that the teacher monitors and corrects every student utterances. He or she also answers students’ questions and evaluate the students’ learning.
The major steps in teaching skills are the following:
Instruction / Review
Set the stage for learning.
Planning the content and method of delivery.
Managing the available time efficiently.
Model the expected learning outcomes by providing clear explanations and examples. Presenting the content in an interesting and motivating way. Explaining and demonstrating clearly.
Monitor and engage students with assigned learning tasks. Knowing when and how to explain key points in more detail. Using appropriate questioning to focus students’ attention, stimulate their thinking, and check for understanding. Closure
Bring the lesson to a conclusion by highlighting what was covered. Dealing with questions raised by students.
Provide learning tasks that are independent of teacher assistance. Evaluation
Assess pupil progress.
Evaluating students’ learning and participation.
Giving feedback to students.
I believe that discussion requires students to process information they have studied in different forms. For example students are asked to apply, evaluate or even compare their knowledge of a certain topic with their classmates. Class discussion, as I have experienced at the university, can be either between the teacher and the students or among the students themselves.
On one hand a teacher can encourage his or her students to engage in a class by simply ask questions. This way the teachers are quite sure they are keeping students’ attention. On the other hand dialog time and background information are also useful ways to help students learn, understand and summarize the main points of a class.
According to Good and Brophy (2008) lectures should be presented efficiently and enthusiastically so students can be stimulated.
One way to organize content during a lecture is by introducing a topic supplying an overview. In this way the students’ interest is aroused.
Stating the purpose of the lesson is quite important because the students will be aware of what they are going to be taught. Additionally, bringing students up to date information is a vehicle to stimulate their interest.
Explanation and demonstration or modeling is relevant when organizing a specific topic or content in a lecture. Also presenting data and information in a quick, succinct and integrated way that in different circumstances would take students a great deal of time to research and discover for themselves. Finally, the session achieves a closure when the lecturer summarizes and consolidates the main points from the lecture and discussion (Kauchak & Eggen, 2007). And providing an opportunity for review and revision of course material is really necessary just to audit if the information was really understood by students.
advantages and disadvantages of using lectures in the teaching of EFL.
Lectures are a straightforward way to teach.
Teachers have the control over what is being taught in the classroom. Lecture is a method familiar to most teachers because it was typically the way they were taught. Lectures present key information to students quickly and concisely. Time saver.
Students who have a different learning style (for instance kinesthetic learning style) will have a harder time. Students may not feel that they are able to ask questions during a lecture. Lectures may be inappropriate for younger students and students with learning difficulties. Lectures are considered to be inappropriate for fostering students’ creativity and initiative.
The direct teaching method is quite manageable and straight. Generally speaking this method involves Presentation – Practice – Production.
In the Presentation stage the English learners are introduced to a topic, this can be done through a Power Point Presentation, a short story, a game or simply by teaching a word vocabulary list. This should be done at the beginning of the lesson.
During the Practice stage the students, under favorable circumstances, have the chance to work with lexis, vocabulary or grammatical elements of the lesson topic. A wide variety of short and dynamic activities can be used to aid students internalize the selected material (like word puzzles, True or False exercises using the target lexis, cloze exercises, etc.)
The Production stage can allow students an opportunity for producing new language by using the vocabulary or grammar structures taught. The students may have short conversations, interactive activities among them; they can also write some letters, emails, notes, completing questionnaires, etcetera.
I believe that this approach is straightforward because students can easily follow the pace and content of each class, I also admit it is easier for me to prepare each lesson because the objectives for each stage are clear and simple. I conclude that it is suitable for me and my students (I have huge classes with 45 to 50 students). This method is emphasized when a textbook is being used in a classroom.