Applied Ergonomics xxx (2012) 1e11
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Ergonomics issues in national identity card for homeland security Paul H.P. Yeow a, *, Y.Y. Yuen b,1, W.H. Loo c, 2
School of Business, Monash University, Sunway Campus, Jalan Lagoon Selatan, Bandar Sunway, Petaling Jaya, 46150 Selangor, Malaysia Faculty of Business and Law, Multimedia University, Jalan Ayer Keroh Lama, 75450 Melaka, Malaysia c Putra International College, Lot 1838, Mukim Bukit Katil, Ayer Keroh, 75450 Melaka, Malaysia b
a r t i c l e i n f o
Article history: Received 7 March 2011 Accepted 26 April 2012 Keywords: National identity card Terrorism User acceptance
a b s t r a c t
Ever since the 9/11 terrorist attack, many countries are considering the use of smart national identity card (SNIC) which has the ability to identify terrorists due to its biometric veriﬁcation function. However, there are many ergonomics issues in the use of SNIC, e.g. card credibility. This research presents a case study survey of Malaysian users. Although most citizens (>96%) own MyKad (Malaysia SNIC), many do not carry it around and use its applications. This defeats one of its main purposes, i.e. combating terrorism. Thus, the research investigates ergonomics issues affecting the citizens’ Intention to Use (ITU) MyKad for homeland security by using an extended technology acceptance model. Five hundred questionnaires were collected and analysed using structural equation modelling. Results show that perceived credibility and performance expectancy are the key issues. The ﬁndings provide many countries with insights into methods of addressing ergonomics issues and increasing adoption of SNIC for homeland security. Ó 2012 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.
1. Introduction “In the 19th century, it was sufﬁcient to ask who you are. In the 20th century, it was sufﬁcient to show who you are. However, in the 21st century, you will have to prove who you are” (Harrow and Krim, 2001, p. A01). Quoted by Washington Post after the 9/11 terrorist attack, these statements indicate issues faced by Americans and possibly citizens from many countries as the idea of smart national identity card (SNIC) is introduced for homeland security. The issues can range from the inconvenience of carrying an SNIC to prove one’s identity to the possibility that personal data recorded were erroneous in the ﬁrst place. More than 100 nations in North America, Europe, Asia, and North Africa have launched SNIC or are planning/considering its introduction (Yeow et al., 2007). In the US, even though there is no SNIC, the government is considering it through a bill introduced in Congress and there are data supporting this initiative, where Pew Research Centre’s 2001 poll reported that 70% of the public support national identity card after 9/11 attack (Harrow and Krim, 2001). In Europe, Germany introduced a multi-function SNIC containing cardholder’s personal information, ﬁngerprints, and electronic signature to enable citizens to sign online contracts (German
* Corresponding author. Tel.: þ60 3 5514 4943; fax: þ60 3 5514 6192/6194. E-mail addresses: email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org (P.H.P. Yeow), email@example.com (Y.Y. Yuen), firstname.lastname@example.org (W.H. Loo). 1 Tel.: þ60 6 252 3063; fax: þ60 6 231 8869. 2 Tel.: þ60 6 231 6826; fax: þ60 6 231 7537.
Information Centre South Asia, 2009). In Asia, Hong Kong issued multipurpose SNIC in June 2003 which provides automated immigration clearance (Hong Kong Immigration, 2010). Italy issued SNIC in January 2006 which contains a digital certiﬁcate for online authentication to facilitate access to e-government functions (Public technology.net, 2005). In North Africa, Morocco introduced SNIC in April 2008 which includes biometric data for immigration control and travelling purposes (CNET News, 2008). SNIC has the...
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