Epidemiology of Diabetes in Mexican Immigrants
This paper will center on the vulnerable population of Mexican-American immigrants with chronic type II adult-onset diabetes and how this affects this growing population. The definition, description, steps, and method of epidemiology will facilitate the discussion. Routine data such as demographics, census, birth, death, and surveillance records, and research data such as medical and health records, will bring pertinent information to the study. The Epidemiological Triangle and which type of epidemiology study that was used will be explored. A description of the relationship of the disease levels of prevention will conclude the paper. Diabetes Type Two Adult
According to "Healthy People.gov" (2012), “Diabetes occurs when the body cannot produce or respond appropriately to insulin. Insulin is a hormone that the body needs to absorb and use glucose (sugar) as fuel for the body’s cells. Without a properly functioning insulin signaling system, blood glucose levels become elevated and other metabolic abnormalities occur, leading to the development of serious, disabling complications. People from minority populations are more frequently affected by type II diabetes. Minority groups constitute 25 percent of all adult patients with diabetes in the United States and represent the majority of children and adolescents with type II diabetes” (Overview). Many Mexican-Americans go undiagnosed for years, and it is only when the foot ulcers show up and get infected that they go to their health care professional and discover that they have diabetes.
The Definition and Description of Epidemiology
Stanhope (2012) stated, “Epidemiology is the study of the distribution and determinants of health-related events in human populations and the application of this knowledge to improving the health of communities. Epidemiology is a multidisciplinary enterprise that recognizes the complex interrelationships of factors that influence disease and health at both the individual level and the community level; it provides the basic tools for the study of health and disease in communities” (p. 282). The rate of obesity among Mexican immigrants is rampant. The impact of obesity has resulted in more healthcare-related illness such as heart disease, vascular disease and diabetes. Many of the factors that lead to diabetes are socioeconomic as well as cultural. In order to head off this potential epidemic, the factors related to both the individual and the community need to be recognized and explored. Dealing with the health-related events and applying the newfound knowledge to helping Mexican-Americans become healthier is a proactive measure that will impact the future healthcare system. The Steps and Methods of Epidemiology
The steps of epidemiology include surveillance of the event; in this case it is the collection and interpretation of data as it is related to diabetes in Mexican-Americans. Some of the routine data, such as census, birth, death, and surveillance records are not available to the public (California Health Interview Survey, 2012). . Therefore the data necessary for this step is limited to the recommended websites for the California Health Interview Survey (CHIS) and the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), and the Behavior Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), which can be used to gather pertinent data. The medical records and health records are also not available to the general public, so the review of research data will be assimilated through the aforementioned websites.
According to Preventing Chronic Disease (2007), “Diabetes prevalence among Hispanics is approximately twice that among non-Hispanic whites (5-8). Consistent findings also relate type II diabetes in the Hispanic community with obesity (5-7,9), low income level (7-9), low educational level (7-9), and low level of health insurance (10), all of which are highly prevalent in the U.S.–Mexico border region....
References: California Health Interview Survey. (2012). Retrieved from http://www.askchis.com/
El Nasser, H. (2004). USA Today. Retrieved from
Healthy People.Gov. (2012). Retrieved from http://healthypeople.gov/2020/topicsobjectives2020/overview.aspx?topicid=8
Ideardy. (2006). The Epidemiologic Approach: Steps to Public Health Action. Retrieved from http://http://www.idready.org/slides/02epiapproach-notes.pdf
Lopez, G. (2011). "Why are We so Fat?" Mexican Immigrant Perception of Obesity in California 's Central Valley. Retrieved from http://johnshopkins.academia.edu/GilbertoLopez/Papers/318437/_Why_are_we_so_Fat_Mexican_Immigrant_Perceptions_of_Obesity_in_Californias_Central_Valley
Stanhope, M. (2012). Public Health Nursing: Population-Centered Health Care in the Community (8th ed.). Maryland Heights,, MO: Elsevier.
The California Department of Public Health. (2012). Retrieved from http://www.cdph.ca.gov/Pages/DEFAULT.asp
Preventing Chronic Disease. (2007). Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/pcd/issues/2007/apr/06_0073.htm
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