Environment means the circumstances or conditions that surround us. Earth, our home, gives all the essential things that are needed for our life. For survival of our life in the environment, we should preserve a healthy biosphere with all its ecological systems, all plants and animals, fertile soils, pure waters, and clean air. Now days, natural beauty of the earth is disappearing, as the people around the world destroy the beauty by maximum exploitation of resources. The rate of destruction of the environment is extremely high compared with the past years. Causes of environmental pollution
A variety of environmental problems now affect our earth. As globalization continues and the earth's natural processes transform local problems into global issues, some of the problems now affecting the world are acid rain, air pollution, global warming, hazardous waste, ozone depletion, smog, water pollution, overpopulation etc. Smog and toxins are floating in the air, caused by the wastage from industrial smokestacks and by the over use of petroleum-burning vehicles. Pollution of environment effect the human life. One in five people around the world are dying every year due to factors related to the effect of environmental pollution. But, the most dangerous problem of environmental pollution on human life is the greenhouse effect. The Ecumenical Water Network said about 1.1 billion people worldwide, most of them in Asia, are denied of adequate water and sanitation, while two million people die every year of diseases caused by poor water and sanitation. Most environmental problems are occurring by improper use of energy and resources. The new generation people are not aware of the importance of recycling the energy and conserving it, which in turn leads to more serious problem. Solution for the environmental problems can be done by reducing the over consumption of natural resources and emission of carbon into atmosphere from vehicles. Try to control the industrial developmental projects that cause water pollution and also the activities which catalysis global warming and climate changes.Reduce deforestation for developmental activities and consumption of non biodegradable materials. Decrease the activities causing pollution of water bodies, air, forests, and soil. Recycle is the method. Many products are recyclable. By this we can reduce environmental strain. Electronics devices, such as computers and cell phones are recyclable. Create compost plant waste to minimize the waste and carbon dioxide output while creating healthy organic fertilizer. Recycle the used materials with available technologies to reduce deforestation. This can in turn save trees. Another method is to reuse the spent natural resources and materials manufactured with trees/plants for their conservation. To reduce the demand of the resources, reuse all recycled materials. Environmental Sustainability means: "Meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs." So for this we have to keep the population densities below the carrying capacity of a region, facilitate the renewal of renewable resources and keeping environmental impact and also conserve the environment." We must remember that God entrusted to us the environment to use it responsibly. Our dominion over nature and other living things means stewardship not domination and exploitation or use without regard for the Earth's caring capacity to reproduce and rehabilitate". Many religious protesting arising against these disasters...
Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into an environment that causes instability, disorder, harm or discomfort to the physical systems or living organisms they are in. Pollution can take the form of chemical substances, or energy, such as noise, heat, or light energy. Pollutants, the elements of pollution, can be foreign substances or energies, or naturally occurring; when naturally occurring, they are considered contaminants when they exceed natural levels. Pollution is often classed as point source or nonpoint source pollution. Causes of Pollution
Air pollution comes from both natural and manmade sources. Though globally manmade pollutants from combustion, construction, mining, agriculture and warfare are increasingly significant in the air pollution equation. Motor vehicle emissions are one of the leading causes of air pollution. China, United States, Russia, Mexico, and Japan are the world leaders in air pollution emissions. Principal stationary pollution sources include chemical plants, coal-fired power plants, oil refineries, petrochemical plants, nuclear waste disposal activity, incinerators, large livestock farms (dairy cows, pigs, poultry, etc.), PVC factories, metals production factories, plastics factories, and other heavy industry.Agricultural air pollution comes from contemporary practices which include clear felling and burning of natural vegetation as well as spraying of pesticides and herbicides Some of the more common soil contaminants are chlorinated hydrocarbons (CFH), heavy metals (such as chromium, cadmium–found in rechargeable batteries, and lead–found in lead paint, aviation fuel and still in some countries, gasoline), MTBE, zinc, arsenic and benzene. In 2001 a series of press reports culminating in a book called Fateful Harvest unveiled a widespread practice of recycling industrial byproducts into fertilizer, resulting in the contamination of the soil with various metals. Ordinary municipal landfills are the source of many chemical substances entering the soil environment (and often groundwater), emanating from the wide variety of refuse accepted, especially substances illegally discarded there, or from pre-1970 landfills that may have been subject to little control in the U.S. or EU. There have also been some unusual releases of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins, commonly called dioxins for simplicity, such as TCDD. Pollution can also be the consequence of natural disaster. For example, hurricanes often involve water contamination from sewage, and petrochemical spills from ruptured boats or automobiles. Larger scale and environmental damage is not uncommon when coastal oil rigs or refineries are involved. Some sources of pollution, such as nuclear power plants or oil tankers, can produce widespread and potentially hazardous releases when accidents occur. In the case of noise pollution the dominant source class is the motor vehicle, producing about ninety percent of all unwanted noise worldwide. Effects of Pollution
Human Health – Adverse air quality can kill many organisms including humans. Ozone pollution can cause respiratory disease, cardiovascular disease, throat inflammation, chest pain, and congestion. Water pollution causes approximately 14,000 deaths per day, mostly due to contamination of drinking water by untreated sewage in developing countries. Oil spills can cause skin irritations and rashes. Noise pollution induces hearing loss, high blood pressure, stress, and sleep disturbance. Mercury has been linked to developmental deficits in children and neurologic symptoms. Lead and other heavy metals have been shown to cause neurological problems. Chemical and radioactive substances can cause cancer and as well as birth defects. Environment – Pollution has been found to be present widely in the environment. There are a number of effects of this: Biomagnification describes situations where toxins (such as heavy metals) may pass through trophic levels, becoming exponentially more concentrated in the process. Carbon dioxide emissions cause ocean acidification, the ongoing decrease in the pH of the Earth’s oceans as CO2 becomes dissolved. The emission of greenhouse gases leads to global warming which affects ecosystems in many ways. Invasive species can out compete native species and reduce biodiversity. Invasive plants can contribute debris and biomolecules (allelopathy) that can alter soil and chemical compositions of an environment, often reducing native species competitiveness. Nitrogen oxides are removed from the air by rain and fertilise land which can change the species composition of ecosystems. Smog and haze can reduce the amount of sunlight received by plants to carry out photosynthesis and leads to the production of tropospheric ozone which damages plants. Soil can become infertile and unsuitable for plants. This will affect other organisms in the food web. Sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides can cause acid rain which lowers the pH value of soil. Types of Pollution
Different kinds of pollution are found. In this section we will discuss: 1. Air Pollution.
2. Water Pollution.
3. Land Pollution.
Impact of Pollution
All types of pollution – air, water and soil pollution – have an impact on the living environment. The effects in living organisms may range from mild discomfort to serious diseases such as cancer to physical deformities; ex., extra or missing limbs in frogs. Experts admit that pollution effects are quite often underestimated and that more research is needed to understand the connections between pollution and its effects on all life forms. Solution of Pollution
The technologies we are using today release different types of pollution on land, water resources and air. All the governments are allocating a lot of research funds to develop new technologies that will eliminate or at least reduce the pollution being generated today without causing any hardship to our lifestyles. Even if such a technology is developed and implemented, it will create new types of pollution itself. Also anyone who has studied human behavior knows that there is really no end to human desires. If a technology to control the pollution in satisfying one desire is discovered and successfully implemented, then we will have another desire that generates much more pollution. Therefore it is impossible to control pollution by developing new technologies to reduce the pollution being caused by existing technologies. I named this Murty’s Law on Pollution. As human population keeps on increasing, so does pollution. The following are essential to control pollution: 1. Limit the population, and
2. Adopt simpler lifestyles that will create less pollution in the first place. The idea that some future technology is going to eliminate pollution, change mankind, empower generations, bring the world together and save the environment is just more of the hyped promise of the technology revolution.