Jim Crow laws. Black codes were adopted by the states out in the Midwest in order to regulate the migration of free African Americans. These particular laws were extremely cruel and severe. Southern states soon after adopted these codes as well, as they wanted to control the old social structure. Southern legislatures made the decision to restrict civil rights of the emancipated former slaves. It did not take long for other states to adopt their own versions of the Codes. Each version contained their own restrictive and offensive ways of treating former slaves. Congress made efforts to provide relief and assistance to former slaves, but the adjustments were not easy. On March 3, 1865, the Bureau of Refugees was established. This helped former slaves with health services, abandoned land services, and educational services. However, States kept laws on the books that continued the legacy of the Black Codes. Eventually, Congress passed the Fourteenth Amendment (1867. This particular amendment was created in order to provide citizenship and civil liberties to the recently emancipated slaves.
I certainly agree with Alexander’s metaphor concerning slavery and mass incarceration. History describes a racial caste system and Alexander elaborates by stating racial caste as “a racial group locked into an inferior position by law and custom”. Alexander believes that the Black Codes and slavery were caste systems, and that our current system concerning mass incarceration is a caste system as