Efficient Market Hypothesis

Topics: Stock market, Fundamental analysis, Technical analysis Pages: 8 (2992 words) Published: August 22, 2013
Introduction:
From the last several decades the efficiency of stock market has been the sole purpose of research studies. As a result, several theories have been introduced and implemented in relation to principally how the competition in the stock market will force the known information into the prices of securities. The knowledge of information on a variety of securities that are traded in the market is one of the major factors in influencing the movements of stock market. In the stock market, a securities price tends to move rise and fall depending mainly on the availability of the information. The stock prices in the efficient market correspond to available information and therefore register any rise or fall mainly when recent and unpredictable information is available. The up and down in the security prices largely depends upon the advantages and disadvantages associated with the available information and to what extent it will affect the company's performance which is represented by the security. As it is very difficult to tell whether the information available is useful or not, in the same way it is quite impossible to make predictions about the trend of the stock market, such that whether there will be an upward or downward trend in the near future by using the available information. In the financial market it is not mandatory that all professionals related to market always possess the information about the securities and have skills to evaluate this information for their gain. The only thing the efficient market requires is that few individuals must have the information about securities and as a result of the information supplied by them, the whole market must be well informed and benefitted. Hence the available information plays an important role in determining the efficiency of the stock market. By focussing on the above idea, the concept of Efficient Market Hypothesis has been developed and became one of the most concentrated and debatable topic among professionals and people related to finance and stock market studies. RESEARCH AIM:

The main aim of my research is to analyse the efficiency of stock market supported by the concept of Efficient Market Hypothesis. It also aims to depict the impact of the Efficient Market Hypothesis on security trading by reviewing the available literature. RESEARCH QUESTIONS:

My research aims to answer the following questions:
* To what extent the available information, according to the concept of Efficient Market Theory, affects the security trading in stock market. * What is insider trading and its impact on the efficiency of stock market. * What are the various types of anomalies associated with the stock market and their effect on the stock market efficiency. LITERATURE REVIEW:

In this part of my research paper I will re-examine the existing literature on the anomalies and the efficiency of the stock market. "An 'efficient' market is defined as a market where there are large numbers of rational, profit-maximizers actively competing, with each trying to predict future market values of individual securities, and where important current information is almost freely available to all participants. In an efficient market, competition among the many intelligent participants leads to a situation where, at any point in time, actual prices of individual securities already reflect the effects of information based both on events that have already occurred and on events which, as of now, the market expects to take place in the future. In other words, in an efficient market at any point in time the actual price of a individual securities already reflect the effects of information based both on events that have already occurred and on events which, as of now, the market expects to take place in the future. In other words, in an efficient market at any point in time the actual price of a security will be a good estimate of its intrinsic value."(Eugene F. Fama 1965) According...

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3. Eugene Fama and Kenneth R. French (1992)"The Cross-section of Expected Stock Returns," The Journal of Finance 47, 427-465.
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5. Ghauri, P., Gronhaug K and Kristianslund I., (1995) "Research methods in business studies - a practical guide" Hempstead: Prentice Hall
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7. James P. O 'Shaughnessy (1998) 2nd edn. What Works on Wall Street: A Guide to the Best-Performing Investment Strategies of All Time. New York: McGraw Hills
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9. Loughran Tim (1997) ' 'Book-to-Market across firm Size, Exchange, and seasonality: Is There an Effect? ' ' Journal of Finance & Quantitative Analysis 32, 249-268
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11. Robert Haugen and Philippe Jorion, (1996)"The January Effect: Still There after All These Years," Financial Analysts Journal, January-February 1996.
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13. Werner F.M. DeBondtand Richard Thaler (1985)"Does the Stock Market Overreact?" The Journal of Finance 40, 793-805.
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