Economic, Inflation

Topics: Inflation, Monetary policy, Currency Pages: 9 (2341 words) Published: December 13, 2013


Submitted to:

Zaved Mannan
Senior Lecturer
Department of Business Administration

Submitted by:

Debasis RoyID: (120306038)

Submitted On:

23rd November, 2013
Sec: A

 “Too much money in circulation causes the money to lose value”-this is the true meaning of inflation. The popular opinion about the costs of inflation is that inflation makes everyone worse off by reducing the purchasing power of incomes, eroding living standards and adding, in many ways, to life’s uncertainties. In economics, inflation is a rise in the general level of prices of goods and services in an economy over a period of time. Inflation refers to a rise in prices that causes the purchasing power of a nation to fall. Inflation is a normal economic development as long as the annual percentage remains low; once the percentage rises over a pre-determined level, it is considered an inflation crisis. In another word “Inflation means that your money won’t buy as much today as you could yesterday”. Definition of Inflation rate (consumer prices)

 This entry furnishes the annual percent change in consumer prices compared with the previous year's consumer prices. The inflation rate is the percentage rate of change of a price index over time.

 Effect on the economy

General Effect
An increase in the general level of prices implies a decrease in the purchasing power of the currency. That is, when the general level of prices rises, each monetary unit buys fewer goods and services. Increases in the price level (inflation) erode the real value of money (the functional currency) and other items with an underlying monetary nature (e.g. loans and bonds). For example if one takes a loan where the stated interest rate is 6% and the inflation rate is at 3%, the real interest rate that one are paying for the loan is 3%. It would also hold true that if one had a loan at a fixed interest rate of 6% and the inflation rate jumped to 20%one would have a real interest rate of -14%.

Negative Effect
High or unpredictable inflation rates are regarded as harmful to an overall economy. They add inefficiencies in the market, and make it difficult for companies to budget or plan long-term. Inflation can act as a drag on productivity as companies are forced to shift resources away from products and services in order to focus on profit and losses from currency inflation. Uncertainty about the future purchasing power of money discourages investment and saving and inflation can impose hidden tax increases. In case of international trade, ‘Higher inflation in one economy than another will cause the first economy's exports to become more expensive and affect the balance of trade’

Positive Effect
Positive effects include ensuring central banks can adjust nominal interest rates (intended to mitigate recessions), and encouraging investment in non-monetary capital projects. It puts impact on Labor-market adjustments, Room to maneuver, Mundell-Tobin effect, Instability with Deflation etc

Causes behind inflation
In developing countries, in contrast, inflation is not a purely monetary phenomenon, but is often linked with fiscal imbalances and deficiencies in sound internal economic policies. Beside, factors typically related to fiscal imbalances such as higher money growth and exchange rate depreciation arising from a balance of payments crisis dominate the inflation process in developing countries. There were different schools of thought as to the causes of inflation. Most can be divided into two broad areas: 1. Quality theories of inflation

2. Quantity theories of inflation.
The quality theory of inflation rests on the expectation of a seller accepting currency to be able to exchange that currency at a later time for goods that are desirable as a buyer.

The quantity theory of inflation rests on the quantity equation of money that relates the money supply, its velocity, and the...

References: Abel, Andrew; Bernanke, Ben (2005). Macroeconomics (5th ed.). Pearson
Barro, Robert J. (1997). Macroeconomics. Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press. p. 895. ISBN 0-262-02436-5
Blanchard, Olivier (2000). Macroeconomics (2nd ed.). Englewood Cliffs, N.J: Prentice Hall. ISBN 0-13-013306-X
Mankiw, N. Gregory (2002). Macroeconomics (5th ed.). Worth
Hall, Robert E.; Taylor, John B. (1993). Macroeconomics. New York: W.W. Norton. p. 637. ISBN 0-393-96307-1
Burda, Michael C.; Wyplosz, Charles (1997). Macroeconomics: a European text. Oxford [Oxfordshire]: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-877468-0
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