Topics: Literary criticism, New Criticism, Literature Pages: 6 (1843 words) Published: May 4, 2013
What is the function of literature?
Literature should convey timeless truths, thus distracting the masses from their immediate commitments, nurturing in them a spirit of tolerance and generosity. Education should be done through literature: “the pill of middle-class ideology was to be sweetened by the sugar of literature” (23). 2. Literature gives people a pride in their national language 3. Literature provides cheap education for poor people, that is why English literature first developed in in the Mechanics' Institutes, working men's colleges 4. Solidarity between the social classes, the cultivation of 'larger sympathies', 5. The transmission of 'moral' values. This is an essential part of the ideological project; indeed the rise of “English Literature” is more or less concomitant with an historic shift in the meaning of the term 'moral', of which Arnold, Henry James and F. R. Leavis are the major critical exponents. In other words, old religious ideologies have lost their force, but a more subtle way of communicating the moral values, one which works by 'dramatic enactment', literature, is developed. How did literature help improve the condition of women?

6. Literature became a suitable subject for women, workers and those wishing to impress the natives. Literature helped women enter the universities: “since English was an untaxing sort of affair, concerned with the finer feelings rather than with the more virile topics of bona fide academic 'disciplines', it seemed a convenient sort of non-subject to palm off on the ladies, who were in any case excluded from science and the professions” (24). 7. Literature transmits civilization and culture. High civilizations have had high literature. 8. Great literature is a literature open to Life, and what Life is can be demonstrated by great literature.

How did English Literature acquire its masculine aspect?
It served the colonialist purposes of England. The English could colonize overseas territories by displaying their cultural superiority and national identity.

Literature by nature is experiential. What does this phrase mean? Literature is not only the homeland of ideology it is also in its literary form a kind of vicarious self-fulfillment.

Explain the influence of the First Imperialist World War on English Literature. Philology, which was associated with Germany, was left aside. And victory over Germany caused a 'spiritual hungering' among English people, for which poetry seemed to provide an answer. The First World War caused the rise of English Literature to Power because nationalism and patriotism became important. It also provided spiritual solutions for the English ruling class whose sense of identity had been shaken, and whose psyche was scarred by the horrors of the War.

Which literary figures helped fashioning English into a serious discipline, that is English Literature? F. R. Leavis, Queenie Dorothy Roth, later Q. D. Leavis, I. A. Richards, the renowned pupils of these pioneers, William Empson and L. C. Knights, How was the situation of English Literature by 1830s?

By 1930s, English Literature was not only a subject worth studying, but the supremely civilizing pursuit, the spiritual essence of the social formation. English became an arena in which the most fundamental questions of human existence - what it meant to be a person, to engage in significant relationship with others, to live from the vital centre of the most essential values — could be studied and answered. Scrutiny was the title of the critical journal launched in 1932 by the Leavises, which was devoted to the moral centrality of English studies. Literature is devoted to the quality of social life as a whole. The centrality of rigorous critical analysis, a disciplined attention to the 'words on the page' was also stressed. They urged this not simply for technical or aesthetic reasons, but because it had the closest relevance to the spiritual crisis of modern civilization.

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