Disconfirmation of expectation model
A customer went into a restaurant what require her driven a long distance and waited 15 minutes for a table. She expected it to be good. However, the restaurant was dirty, the table service was poor and the high-price meal was overcooked. Dissatisfaction felt by this customer because the restaurant’s service performance was not as good as what the customer expected, then there was a negative disconfirmation between expectations and perceptions which causes dissatisfaction.
Nowadays, food industry is rapidly growing. In such competitive industry, those with more important in attracting customer’s satisfaction from different aspects. In disconfirmation model, People use standards of assessment in judging products or service such as predictive, desires, need and norms (Spreng, 2003). And company use this to measure customer satisfaction. Lovelock describes that Expectancy-Disconfirmation Paradigm has two famous variables that are expectation and perceived performance. They are defended for two distinct time periods. Expectation is related to the pre purchase time period that customer has initial expectation about specific performance. For example, customer expected the restaurant has good table service. Perceived performance is related to the after purchase time period that once the product or service has been used, outcomes the customer had. For instance, the meal was overcook in that restaurant. The different between expectation and perceived experience is termed as disconfirmation of expectation.
As the result of difference between expectation and perceived experience, disconfirmation of expectation can be positive or negative. Oliver (1980) proposed that a customer is satisfied or dissatisfied depend on the positive or negative difference between expectations and perceptions. In other words, when perceived performance is better than what the customer desire, the positive disconfirmation occurs. For example,...
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