DISASTER MANAGEMENT IN PAKISTAN
Due to diverse geo-climatic conditions prevalent in different parts of the globe, different types of natural disasters like floods, droughts, earthquakes, cyclones, landslides, and volcanoes etc may strike according to the vulnerability of the area. 2.
Pakistan, due to its diverse range of terrain, is susceptible to wide ranging hazards from droughts to floods and earthquakes to cyclones. Pakistan suffered a major drought from 1995-2000. Pakistan almost every year suffers from floods but the destructions faced in 2010 have changed parameters of our thinking. Pakistan has also experienced earthquakes ranging from moderate to severe in intensity. Despite all these hazards, Pakistan is yet to formulate a viable Disaster Management System, to respond and recover from disasters. 3.
In the recent past frequency of natural as well as disasters caused by man has increased due to multifarious reasons. All countries whether developed or under developed are equally prone to both types of disasters. We have the example of US which faced the disaster caused by terrorist attacks on Twin Towers and hurricanes Katrina and Rita. Japan recently faced a massive earthquake and Tsunami and forest fire is a common feature in Australia. However, in most of the cases, losses suffered by developed countries in men and material are much lesser than there in developing and under developed countries owing to a well-coordinated and better organized pre/ post-calamity response by their disaster management agencies. Therefore it is imperative to study the role in disaster management operations (DMO) vis-à-vis post calamity response in developed countries in order to recommend an effective disaster management response for Pakistan. Aim
To analyse of disaster management issues of Pakistan, national capabilities -à-vis best international practices and recommend viable measures to improve national disaster management capabilities.
The study will follow the sequence as under:-
Part - I
Disasters and Vulnerability Profile of Pakistan b.
Part - II
Disaster Management Schemes/ Plan followed by
Developed Countries c.
Part - lII
Existing National Disaster Management Capabilities/
Part - lV
PART - I
DISASTERS AND VULNERABILITY PROFILE OF PAKISTAN
Disasters and Vulnerability Profile
A disaster is “an occurrence arising with little or no warning, which causes death, injury or disease to a large number of people, and requires a mobilization of effort in excess of that normally provided by the statutory emergency services”. “It may also be seen as the effect of a hazard on some segment of a populace, which overwhelms its ability to respond”. The United Nations describes a disaster as, “a serious disruption of the functioning of a community or a society causing widespread human, material, economic or environmental losses which exceed the ability of the affected community or society to cope using its own resources”. Disasters vary in size, scope and significance. Depending on size and severity, a disaster requires local, district, provincial, national or international response. Disasters are characterized by following factors:- 1) They may occur at any time with little or no warning. 2) They result in numerous casualties, fatalities and displaced people. 3) They disrupt normal life support systems, essential public services, basic infrastructure and cause damage to environment. 4) They may overwhelm capabilities of local and provincial governments as well as private-sector infrastructure. 5) They attract a sizeable influx of spontaneous volunteers and supplies. 6) They require prolonged, sustained management and support activities. b.
Bibliography: China, National Comprehensive Disaster Reduction Plan for the Eleventh 5-year Plan Period (State Council, 14 August 2007).
China, National Master Plan for Responding to Public Emergencies (State Council, 7 August 2005).
China, “State Council promulgates national thematic disaster response plans” (Xinhua News Agency, 11 January 2006).
Council, 14 August 2007).
 China, National Master Plan for Responding to Public Emergencies (State Council, 7 August 2005).
 China, “State Council promulgates national thematic disaster response plans” (Xinhua News
Agency, 11 January 2006).
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