Determinants of Tourism Destination

Topics: Tourism, World Tourism Organization, Competitiveness Pages: 29 (8331 words) Published: January 12, 2010
Recent conceptual work on tourism destination competitiveness has proposed a comprehensive approach that adds
industry-level competitiveness attributes to more conventional tourism destination attributes. This study builds on
these ideas by generating sets of both attributes, developing a methodology for assessing their relative importance and
examining the degree to which their relative importance varies across locations. Survey data were gathered from tourism
industry practitioners in three closely competing destinations in Asia Pacific and were subjected to statistical
testing. The results provide strong empirical support for the inclusion of both industry-level and destination attributes in studies of tourism competitiveness. The results also question approaches to competitiveness that assume that the relative

importance of attributes is common across locations, suggesting, rather, that the importance of competitiveness attributes
may vary across locations, depending on product
mix and target market segments, especially in complex, multifaceted industries such as tourism.
Keywords: destination competitiveness; industry and
destination factors; comparison across
destinations
Competitiveness is increasingly being seen as a critical
influence on the performance of tourism destinations in competitive world markets. At a general level, industry competitiveness
has become an established topic for researchers,
policy makers, and practitioners, having expanded considerably since the publication of Michael Porter’s (1990) wellknown work. Tourism destination competitiveness, in particular,
is becoming an area of growing interest among tourism
researchers (see particularly Crouch and Ritchie 1999; see
also Chon and Mayer 1995; Faulkner, Oppermann, and Fredline
1999; d’Hauteserre 2000; Hassan 2000). Pearce (1997,
p. 25) considers that “at a time when tourism worldwide is becoming increasingly competitive . . . all insights into the development, strengths, and weaknesses of competing destinations will become even more crucial.” Ritchie and Crouch

2000 (p. 6) consider destination competitiveness to have
“tremendous ramifications for the tourism industry and [it] is therefore of considerable interest to practitioners and policy makers.” Dwyer, Forsyth, and Rao (2000, p.10) reinforce
this view, stating that it is “useful for the industry and government to understand where a country’s competitive position
is weakest and strongest” and, hence, that it is important to know how and why competitiveness is changing.

Crouch and Ritchie’s (1999) approach to destination
competitiveness is among the best known of recent attempts
to conceptualize an approach that includes elements of tourism competitiveness and industry competitiveness, and this
has undergone a number of iterations since its earliest public presentation (Ritchie and Crouch 1993). Their approach
extends previous, pioneering studies, such as Pearce’s
(1997) technique of “competitive destination analysis,”
which was proposed as a technique for systematically comparing diverse attributes of competing destinations, drawing
attention to the need for comparisons across competitors.
These approaches also extend mainstream research focused
principally on destination image or attractiveness (see Chon, Weaver, and Kim 1991; Hu and Ritchie 1993). Such studies
are part of a long tradition of destination image research (see Gearing, Swart, and Var 1974 through to Gallarza, Saura,
and García 2002) and in keeping with that tradition have concentrated on those attributes that are seen to attract visitors,
such as climate, scenery, and accommodation. While tourism
services in general are recognized as being important elements of destination image or product (Murphy, Pritchard,
and Smith 2000), it is less common in destination image
research to pay explicit attention to the firms that supply the services and to the factors that may affect the...

References: Abe, K. (1996). “Tourism: A New Role for Japanese Cities.” In Tourism in
Major Cities, edited by C
Ashworth, G. J. (1989). “Urban Tourism: An Imbalance in Attention.” In
Progress in Tourism, Recreation and Hospitality Management, edited
Chen, J. S. (2001). “A Case Study of Korean Outbound Travelers’ Destination
Images by Using Correspondence Analysis.” Tourism Management,
Chon, K. S., and K. J. Mayer (1995). “Destination Competitiveness Models
in Tourism and Their Application to Las Vegas.” Journal of Tourism
Chon, K. S., P. A. Weaver, and C. Y. Kim (1991). “Marketing Your Community:
Image Analysis in Norfolk.” Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration
Crocombe, T. G., M. J. Enright, and M. E. Porter (1991). Upgrading New
Zealand’s Competitive Advantage
Crouch, G. I., and J. R. B. Ritchie (1999). “Tourism, Competitiveness, and
Social Prosperity.” Journal of Business Research, 44: 137–52.
d’ Hauteserre, A. M. (2000). “Lessons in Managed Destination Competitiveness:
The Case of Foxwoods Casino Resort.” Tourism Management,
DeVellis, R. F. (1991). Scale Development: Theory and Applications. Thousand
Oaks, CA: Sage.
Dwyer, L., P. Forsyth, and P. Rao (2000). “The Price Competitiveness of
Travel and Tourism: A Comparison of 19 Destinations.” Tourism
Enright, M. J. (2000). “Competitiveness in the New Millennium.” Working
Paper, Hong Kong Institute of Economics and Business Strategy.
Enright, M. J., A. Francès, and E. Scott-Saavedra (1996). Venezuela: The
Challenge of Competitiveness
Enright, M. J., and J. Newton (2004). “Tourism Destination Competitiveness:
A Quantitative Approach.” Tourism Management, 25 (6): 777–
Enright, M. J., E. E. Scott, and D. Dodwell (1997). The Hong Kong Advantage.
Evans, M. R., and K. S. Chon (1989). “Formulating and Evaluating Tourism
Policy Using Importance-Performance Analysis.” Hospitality Education
Faulkner, B., M. Oppermann, and E. Fredline (1999). “Destination Competitiveness:
An Exploratory Examination of South Australia’s Core Attractions.”
Formica, S. (2002). “Measuring Destination Attractiveness: A Proposed
Framework.” Journal of American Academy of Business, 1 (2): 350–
Gallarza, M. G., I. G. Saura, and H. C. García (2002). “Destination Image
Towards a Conceptual Framework.” Annals of Tourism Research, 29
Gearing, C. E., W. W. Swart, and T. Var (1974). “Establishing a Measure of
Touristic Attractiveness.” Journal of Travel Research, 12: 1–8.
Go, F., R. Pine, and R. Yu (1994). “Hong Kong: Sustaining Competitive Advantage
in Asia’s Hotel Industry.” Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration
Hassan, S. S. (2000). “Determinants of Market Competitiveness in an Environmentally
Sustainable Tourism Industry.” Journal of Travel Research,
De Holan, P. M., and N. Phillips (1997). “Sun, Sand, and Hard Currency—
Tourism in Cuba.” Annals of Tourism Research, 24 (4): 777–95.
Hu, Y. Z., and J. R. B. Ritchie (1993). “Measuring Destination Attractiveness:
A Contextual Approach.” Journal of Travel Research, 35 (4):
Jansen-Verbeke, M. (1986). “Inner-City Tourism: Resources, Tourists and
Promoters.” Annals of Tourism Research, 13: 79–100.
Kim, H. B. (1998). “Perceived Attractiveness of Korean Destinations.” Annals
of Tourism Research, 25 (2): 340–61.
Kozak, M., and M. Rimmington (1999). “Measuring Tourist Destination
Competitiveness: Conceptual and Empirical Findings.” International
Krugman, P. (1994a). “Competitiveness: A Dangerous Obsession.” Foreign
Affairs, 73 (2): 28–44.
——— (1994b). “Proving My Point.” Foreign Affairs, 73 (4): 198–203.
Law, C. M. (1993). Urban Tourism: Attracting Visitors to Large Cities. New
York: Mansell.
Martilla, J. A., and J. C. James (1977). “Importance-Performance Analysis.”
Journal of Marketing, 41 (1): 77–79.
Murphy, P., M. P. Pritchard, and B. Smith (2000). “The Destination Product
and Its Impact on Traveller Perceptions.” Tourism Management, 21
Pacific Asia Travel Association (2003). Pacific Asia Tourism Forecasts
2003–2005
Page, S. J. (2000). “Urban Tourism.” In Tourism Management: Towards the
New Millennium, edited by C
Pearce, D. G. (1997). “Competitive Destination Images: Analysis of Association
Meeting Planners’ Perceptions.” Tourism Management, 17 (3):
Porter, M. E. (1990). The Competitive Advantage of Nations. New York:
Free Press.
Prestowitz, C. V. Jr., L. C. Thurow, R. Scharping, S. S. Cohen, and B. Steil
(1994)
Rapkin, D. P., and J. R. Strand (1995). “Competitiveness: Useful Concept,
Political Slogan, or Dangerous Obsession?” In National Competitiveness
Ritchie, J. R B., and G. I. Crouch (1993). “Competitiveness in International
Tourism: A Framework for Understanding and Analysis.” Proceedings
Continue Reading

Please join StudyMode to read the full document

You May Also Find These Documents Helpful

  • Destination Marketing for the Development of Tourism Industry Essay
  • tourism Essay
  • Essay on Tourism and Tourist Destinations
  • Tourism Essay
  • tourism Essay
  • Essay on Determinants of Tourism Demand: for Mexico
  • Destination Development in Tourism Essay
  • tourism destination proposal Essay

Become a StudyMode Member

Sign Up - It's Free