Herbert Risley, Census Commissioner in 1911 has rightly observed, “Beneath the manifold diversity of physical and social type, language, custom and religion which strike the observer in India there can still be discerned a certain underlying uniformity of life from the Himalayas to Cape Comorin”.
India has never lost the ideal of unity. From time immemorial it found noblest expression in the thoughts of our sages and poets. The entire country is referred to as ‘ Bharata varsha’ and the people are referred to as Bharata ‘Santatih’ (progeny of Bharata) to emphasise the oneness of the country and its people.
The bonds of unity in India underlying the diversities are discussed below:
1. Geographical Unity:
India, like every other country, has its own fixed boundaries that are natural. On one side there are high Himalayan mountains and the other three sides are practically surrounded by oceans. India is limited within boundaries that are evidence of geographical unity, a unity which baffles the scholars who themselves live in small European countries and find it difficult to comprehend how such a large country with so much variety of nature can be united.
The very name “Bharatvarsha” implies a historical significance that symbolizes unity. The name is not born of geographical necessity but is concerned with the ideal of Chakravarty.
This name, the chief characteristic of which is unity, has always occupied an important place in the minds of religious thinkers, political philosophers and poets since each has conceived of the country as a single expanse from the Himalayas in the North to Cape Comorin in the South and from the Brahmaputra in the East to the Indus in the West.
Even today, when we address our A country as “Mother India” it includes the realization of geographical