Customs

Topics: Natural gas, Petroleum, Carbon dioxide Pages: 1 (382 words) Published: April 23, 2015
Transporation ModePipelines transportation.

Which kinds of products are suitable for pipelines?

Liquid and gases are transported in pipelines and any chemically stable substance can be sent through a pipeline. Pipelines exist for the transport of crude and refined petroleum, fuels - such as oil, natural gas and biofuels - and other fluids including sewage, slurry, water, and beer. Pneumatic tubes using compressed air can be used to transport solid capsules.

What advantages and disadvantages pipelines have?

The biggest advantage of pipelines is continiuos flow mode. Pipeline is the most dependable mode of delivery, unaffected by external factors like weather.

Disadvantge of using pipelines is very high initial cost. Also they are slow, rigid in terms of routes and product types.

What are future trends of pipelines in Finland?

Biogas is available for transport, industrial, and home use. It is a cost-effective way of switching to environmentally friendly energy.

Gasum biogas is made from 100% Finnish and renewable raw materials. Gasum biogas is upgraded biogas. This means you can use it without additional investments for all the same purposes as natural gas. Gasum’s existing gas pipeline network is utilized in the transmission of biogas from production facilities to customers.

Future power-to-gas (P2G) technologies to convert electrical power to renewable gas.

In the future major increases in the share of renewables in electricity production may result in situations where electricity production exceeds the demand for power. This is when it is a good idea to store energy for windless and cloudy days. Any oversupply of wind or solar power can be used to produce gas, which can then be stored in the gas network.

In the power-to-gas (P2G) process, electricity is used to produce hydrogen from water, and hydrogen is then combined with carbon dioxide to produce methane. The methane is fed into the gas network and distributed to...

References: http://www.pipeline101.com/why-do-we-need-pipelines/what-do-pipelines-transport
Logistics, chapter 7 Domestic transportation, pp. 100-109
http://www.gasum.com/Facts-about-gas-/Biogas/
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