Theories of Crowd Behavior
The Contagion Theory
* is defined as the theory stating that members of crowds stimulates each other to higher and higher levels of emotions and irrational behavior. * Contagion often refers to the spread of disease from person to person; accordingly it focuses on the spread of emotion in a crowd. * Formulated by Gustave Le Bon.
Herbert Blumer-has offered another version of this theory as it has three stages. * Milling- the first stage; people move around in an aimless and random fashion, much like excited herds of cattle or sheep. * Collective Excitement- second stage; is more intense form of milling. At this stage, crowd members become impulsive, unstable, and highly responsive to the actions and suggestions of others. * Social Contagion- the third stage; is an extension of the other stages.
Emergent Norm Theory
* This is a theory that stating norms develop to guide crowd behavior. * This theory stresses the similarity between daily social behavior and crowd behavior; in both situations, norms guide behavior.(Turner 1964. Turner & Killian 1987). * Both contagion and emergent norm theories of crowd behavior assume that individuals are merely responding to those around them. * Emergent-more emotional response or a more rational response.
* Theory that states that crowds are formed by people who deliberately congregates with like-minded others. * Convergence theory crowds are formed by people who deliberately congregate with other who they know to be like-minded.
Movements whose goal is to promote or prevent social change, the most structured and rational form of collective behavior. PRIMARY TYPES OF SOCIAL MOVEMENT
1. REVOLUTIONARY MOVEMENT – A social movement that attempts to change the total structure of the society. 2. REFORMATIVE MOVEMENT – A social movement that attempts to make limited changes in society. 3. REDEMPTIVE...
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