Critically Consider the Emotional Growth of Young Children and the Implications of Their Overall Development
1. Background Theories To Emotional Growth
Erik Erikson: * Psychosocial stages (compared to Freud because he claimed that humans develop in stages) * Erikson’s stages of development said that ones development would continue through their whole life. The stages were Trust vs. Mistrust, Autonomy vs. Shame & Doubt, Initiative vs. Guilt, Industry vs. Inferiority, Identity vs. Role Confusion, Intimacy vs. Isolation, Generativity vs. Stagnation, and Integrity vs. Despair. However when we are looking at a young child’s emotional growth we would only focus on the first three stages. * Each of these first three stages can be describes respectively as infancy, early childhood and preschool. The infancy stage is based on whether babies will trust or mistrust their caregivers, depending on whether their needs are met. The early childhood stage is whether children become self sufficient or doubt their own abilities. And finally the preschool stage is when children undertake activities or they may fear limits which have been set by their caregivers.
Simon Baron Cohen: * Baron Cohen (1985) developed the first study to show that a child with autism has a delay in development when developing theory of mind. * Theory of mind is being able to infer the full range of mental states (beliefs, desires, intentions, imagination, emotions, etc) that cause action. When having a theory of mind we are able to understand our own minds and compare and relate them to other people’s minds. This means that an autistic child will not have the same experiences as a non autistic child, therefore will not grow emotionally at the same rate. * An autistic child’s emotions are at the edges of consciousness, tying together any unexplainable areas whereas a non autistic child’s emotions are at the core of consciousness, indistinguishable from other conscious
References: Bowlby, J. (1969). Attachment and loss, volume 1: Attachment. New York: Basic Books. Erikson, E. H. (1984). Reflections on the last stage – and the first. The Psychoanalytic Study of the Child, 39, 155-165 Freud, S. (1905-2000). Three essays on the theory of sexuality (revised edition). New York: Basic Books Simon Baron Cohen. Theory of mind in normal development and autism, Prisme, 2001, 34, 174-183 Bernardo J. Carducci, The Psychology of Personality: Viewpoints, Research, and Applications, Second Edition, 263-270 Wadsworth, Barry J (1996), Piaget 's theory of cognitive and affective development: Foundations of constructivism (5th ed.)