Cosmetic Surgery among women: Cause and Effect
Table of Contents:
Introduction Page 2 Causes of Cosmetic Surgery (by Hilda) Page 3 Physical Damage after Cosmetic Surgery (by Bonnie) Page 4 Psychological Effects of Cosmetic Surgery (by Ashley) Page 5 Conclusion Page 6 Works Cited Page7 Appendix A – Women and Health: Power, Technology, Inequality, and Conflict in a Gendered World Appendix B – Reflecting on Cosmetic Surgery: Body image, Shame and Narcissism Appendix C – Body Work: Beauty and Self-image in American Culture Appendix D – Body Image: A Handbook of Science, Practice, and Prevention Appendix E – Nips & tucks: Everything You Must Know Before Having Cosmetic Surgery Appendix F – Check list
To examine the history of cosmetic surgery, Ratcliff stated that cosmetic surgery was originally used to reconstruct the injuries of the returning soldiers from the First and Second World Wars. However, due to the long-time promotions of the media in the standard of beauty of women and the turning of the effects of aging to pathological changes by doctors, the usage of cosmetic surgery has changed (133). Ratcliff reported the statistics in 1998 from the American Association, which showed 3,892,149 cosmetic surgeries for women (135).
Nowadays, cosmetic surgery becomes more common, especially for women. Instead of needing it, women see it as a want. They want to attain their ideal images by cosmetic surgery. However, the raising of cosmetic surgery causes both physical and psychological problems.
This paper will examine the causes and effects of cosmetic surgery.
Causes of Cosmetic Surgery
by Hilda Kong Tsz Yan
Northrop reported the Davis’ and Gimlin’s findings in 1995 and 2002 that the judgment of men is not the main reason for women to have cosmetic surgery. The opinions of men are just the supportive of the cosmetic surgery decisions of women (157).
With the increasing number of women having cosmetic surgery after divorcement, Northrop believed that many women would change jobs or resume studying to enlarge their competence and competitiveness. Cosmetic surgery would improve their body image and increase the opportunities of employment (157). Northrop also thought that cosmetic surgery had the meaning of getting back control of the bodies for divorced women. They did not mind the pain of cosmetic surgery as they thought it was the inevitable part of process of retrieving ownership of their bodies (158). For common women having cosmetic surgery, Northrop suggested that due to the rejection and replacement by other people who had better looking in daily life, women would have dispirited self image and feel shame. They therefore want to improve their situations by cosmetic surgery (159).
I am surprised that cosmetic surgery has a great meaning for women. It does not only boost the self-esteem of women, but also has the meaning of getting back their bodies. I have believed that opinions of men are the main reason for women to have cosmetic surgery all the while. However, it appears to me that there is evidence to say that women want to have cosmetic surgery because of women themselves.
Physical Damage after Cosmetic Surgery
by Bonnie Hui Nga Ting
Gimlin highlighted cosmetic surgery can cause a serious problem on health that the body may have rejection on tissue engineering application. She also described women had breast augmentation and it is extremely pain. They may feel difficulties and uncomfortable when they lying or putting up the hand. If it is not success, the surgeon chisels the chest wall of the patient for removing the chemical part out. It cannot stay inside the body. Furthermore, the breast may have scars...
Cited: Barry, Diana. Nips & tucks: Everything You Must Know Before Having Cosmetic Surgery. Los Angeles: General Publishing Group, 1996, 17-20. Print.
Cash, Thomas F., and Linda Smolak. Body Image: A Handbook of Science, Practice, and Prevention. 2nd Ed. New York: The Guilford Press, 2011, 396-398. Print.
Gimlin, Debra L. Body Work: Beauty and Self-image in American Culture. University of California Press, 2001, 77-78. Web.
Northrop, Jane Megan. Reflecting on Cosmetic Surgery: Body image, Shame and Narcissism. Hoboken: Taylor & Francis, 2012, 157-159. Web.
Ratcliff, Kathryn Strother. Women and Health: Power, Technology, Inequality, and Conflict in a Gendered World.1st ed. Boston: Allyn and Bacon, 2001, 133-135. Print.
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