Part One: Introduction
If a couple want to use contraception because of some reason that they do not want children at this moment, will that be allowed? If they have religions, what is the point of view through different religious perspective? Apparently, this issue is complicated and tough due to its relation to morality. Contraception, also known as birth control and fertility control, refers to methods or devices used to prevent pregnancy from occurring in a sexually active woman (Medicine Net). The use of contraception do bring some benefits. According to statistics, increasing contraceptive use in developing countries has cut the number of maternal deaths by 40% over the past 20 years, merely by reducing the number of unintended pregnancies (The Lancet). However, the abuse of contraception may bring lots of problems. Annual abortion rates (per 1000 women aged 15–44) are 5.6 in the Netherlands, 13 in Britain and 28 in the USA. In Britain about 50% of all conceptions are unplanned. Ambivalent attitudes to sex mean that there is inadequate public discussion about contraception (British Medical Bulletin). This may cause a contraceptive culture, resulting in disrespect to chastity, sexuality and new born life. It is of importance to understand what contraception is and how it is viewed by different perspectives. Part Two: Discussion of Research
The views over contraception are similar among teachings of the Catholic Church, Jewish teachings and Islamic teachings. All of Catholicism, Judaism and Islam are in position that contraception is permitted under certain appropriate circumstances. In Catholic teaching, two parts of the Bible are often quoted to show God's disapproval of birth control. First, God commanded his people to "Be fruitful and multiply," and contraception is seen as specifically flouting this instruction (Genesis 9:1). Second, Onan was killed by God for "spilling his seed," which is often taken as divine condemnation of coitus interruptus (Genesis 38:8-10). The first of these examples is normally rebutted by demonstrating that contraception has not prevented human beings from being fruitful and multiplying. However, there are two understandings of the second example. The first understanding is that God may have been angry with Onan, for having sex for a purpose other than having children. This understanding supports the idea that contraception is naturally wrong and as well as that there is only one kind of naturally good sexual act: sex between a man and a woman who are married and who are having sex to produce children. The second understanding is that God may not have been angry with Onan for preventing conception, but for not following a commandment to produce a child with his dead brother's wife. Nevertheless, we can never apply this understanding to our everyday life and cultures. However, the Onan’s punishment was due to his use of contraception is pointed out by Pope Pius XI in his encyclical Casti Connubii: Small wonder, therefore, if Holy Writ bears witness that the Divine Majesty regards with greatest detestation this horrible crime [contraception] and at times has punished it with death. As St. Augustine notes, ‘Intercourse even with one’s legitimate wife is unlawful and wicked where the conception of the offspring is prevented. Onan, the son of Judah, did this and the Lord killed him for it’ (55). Although there are many scripture that is against contraception, there is still some scripture approve of birth control. The Bible is never directly in favour of contraception. However, there are a few paragraphs that the Bible seems to accept that rather than having kids, sex can be enjoyed for other reasons. Thus, some people claim that this indicates that there is no wrong if a couple have sex without the intention of having children. Similarly, in Catholic Church teachings, it says that "By its very nature the institution of...
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