The moon landing conspiracy theories claim that some or all elements of the Apollo program and the associated moon landing are hoaxes. Various groups and individuals have made conspiracy claims revolve around a few key issues, the waving flag, the blast craters and the shadows, being cited as evidence in support of the Moon landing conspiracy theories. Although a number of objections against that NASA landed a mission on the moon are claimed by conspiracy theorists, most of them are vague and illogical notions. Actually, queries brought forth by conspiracy theorists have been explained scientifically. This essay attempts to argue the conspiracy claims about moon landing in 1969 are not reasonable.
There are several key issues that cause the moon landing theories to emerge. One of them is that the US flag is waving according to the photos given by NASA. The flag place on the surface by the astronauts fluttered despite there being no wind on the Moon. Conspiracy theorists hold the view that this suggests that it was filmed on Earth and a breeze caused the flag to flutter. However, there is a special metal pole connected to the top of the flagpole vertically so that the flag does not hang down. There is no wind and no air on the moon but there does exist inertia property. The flag fluttered because of the inertia property caused by the astronaut’s motion of insert the flagpole into surface of the moon. Moreover, the videos show that when astronauts let go of the flagpole and walk pass by the flag remains still. This point is a significant demonstration because in an atmospheric environment the astronauts’ motion will cause the air flow which could make the flag vibrate. There is another objection that in the lighting-one source environment the shadow crossing not parallel. Conspiracy theorists address that this suggests that artificial lights were used. Objectors think that the “only light source” should be the sun, actually there are several reflected light sources: the sun, sunlight reflected from the earth, sunlight reflected from the moon, sunlight reflected from the astronauts and the LEM. Shadow on the moon is complicated by reflected light, light from these sources is scattered in many directions. In addition, the uneven ground and dust on the moon make the shadow may appear longer and shorter. Furthermore, if artificial light sources were used, there should not be only one shadow of each object. This theory is debunked on the famous experiment “MythBusters” episode “NASA moon landing”. The experiment also demonstrates that the wide-angle lens distortion leads to inconsistent shadow. Conspiracy theorists also retort that the LEM make no blast craters and the engine does not blast away the footprints. However, no crater should be expected. Since the propulsion system is throttled during the final landing, the LEM is no longer intensively decelerating, so the engine only needs to support the lander’s weight which is lessened by the moon’s gravity. Moreover, the surface of the moon is quite different with the surface of the earth. The lunar surface is very compact below its dust layer, making it impossible for the descent engine to blast out a “crater”. Next discussion is about that the LEM is weight 17tons and make no mark on the moon, yet the footprints have not been blasted away by the engine. Although the lander weighed about 17 tons and the astronauts are much more lighter, but their boots are much more smaller. It is pressure (force per unit area) determines depth of the mark. Finally, there is not air on the moon, as a result the ejection could not cause air flow to blast away the footprints. Only the dust under the LEM would be blast away during the final landing. Not only the claims is illogical, but also there are some proof positive should not be suspected such as since the late 2000s, high-definition photos taken by the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter of the Apollo landing sites have captured the lander modules and the tracks left by the astronauts and the images of the moon released in 2012 showing the Apollo flags still standing on the moon. Therefore, it can be seen that the key issues about the moon landing conspiracy theorists are debunked. The creators of the moon landing conspiracy theories made another deceptive plot that they put forward several arguments which are apparently right but actually wrong. Scientific research and presumption should be based on logical reasoning and experiments rather than empirical methods and subjective conjecture. It has been demonstrated that the claim of the American astronauts did not land on the moon in 1969 is not reasonable. The evidence offered by conspiracy theorists is unscientific and vague, even people who have a basic understanding of the science of the moon can analyze these queries crystally.