History Of Comics
The history of comics has followed different paths in different parts of the world. Early narratives in art
An example of an early precursor to print comics is Trajan's Column. Rome's Trajan's Column, dedicated in 113 AD, is an early surviving example of a narrative told through sequential pictures, while Egyptian hieroglyphs, Greek friezes, medieval tapestries such as the Bayeux Tapestry and illustrated manuscripts also combine sequential images and words to tell a story. Versions of the Bible relying primarily on images rather than text were widely distributed in Europe in order to bring the teachings of Christianity to the illiterate. In medieval paintings, many sequential scenes of the same story (usually a Biblical one) appear simultaneously in the same painting (see illustration to right). However, these works did not travel to the reader; it took the invention of modern printing techniques to bring the form to a wide audience and become amass medium. Printing and cartoons
The invention of the printing press, allowing movable type, established a separation between images and words, the two requiring different methods in order to be reproduced. Early printed material concentrated on religious subjects, but through the 17th and 18th centuries, they began to tackle aspects of political and social life, and also started to satirize and caricature. It was also during this period that the speech bubble was developed as a means of attributing dialogue. The first two of six plates in Hogarth's "Marriage à la Mode" series. The first plate depicts the signing of a marriage contract between the wealthy Lord Squanderfield and the bride's poor merchant father. The second plate depicts a morning in the couple's home after a night out. The dog pulls a bonnet out of the husband's pocket which may allude to infidelity as the wife is already wearing a bonnet. One of the first creators of comics was William Hogarth (1697–1764). Hogarth created seven sets of sequential images on "Modern Moral Subjects".One of his works, A Rake's Progress, was composed of a number of canvases, each reproduced as a print, and the eight prints together created a narrative. As printing techniques developed, due to the technological advances of the industrial revolution, magazines and newspapers were established. These publications utilized illustrations as a means of commenting on political and social issues, such illustrations becoming known as cartoons in the 1840s. Soon, artists were experimenting with establishing a sequence of images to create a narrative. While surviving works of these periods such as Francis Barlow's A True Narrative of the Horrid Hellish Popish Plot (c.1682) as well as The Punishments of Lemuel Gulliver and A Rake's Progress by William Hogarth (1726), can be seen to establish a narrative over a number of images, it wasn't until the 19th century that the elements of such works began to crystallise into the comic strip. The speech balloon also evolved during this period, from the medieval origins of the phylacter, a label, usually in the form of a scroll, which identified a character either through naming them or using a short text to explain their purpose. Artists such as George Cruikshank helped codify such phylacters as balloons rather than scrolls, though at this time they were still called labels. They now represented narrative, but for identification purposes rather than dialogue within the work, and artists soon discarded them in favour of running dialogue underneath the panels. Speech balloons weren't reintroduced to the form until Richard F. Outcault used them for dialogue. Form established
A page by Rodolphe Töpffer, whose work is considered influential in shaping the comics form. The Glasgow Looking Glass, published in 1826, was arguably the first comic strip. A satirical publication, later known as The Northern Looking Glass, it lampooned the fashions and politics of the times. It had all of the...
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