Cloning and Stem Cell Research
S/P: To inform my audience about cloning and cell stem research. C/I: The benefits and ethical issues of cloning and cell stem research. Introduction
Specific purpose: Today I’m going to inform you about “Cloning Technology and Stem Cell Research”. Attention getter: Imagine yourself dying from heart disease or liver failure, and the only way to live was to have an exact clone of your heart or liver. The only way this could be possible was to have an exact copy made by your organs, and this process is achieved only by cloning. Reveal central idea: Stem cell research and cloning, is one of the most exciting and controversial ethical issues today. We must see both the benefits and the ethical issues concerning this process. Credibility: while I was doing this research I read an article in “The Guardian” about a perfect match between mice and human cells as Alok Jha science correspondent reports. This grabbed my attention and I really raised my interest to conduct a more specific research about my topic. Goodwill: I hope you will enjoy hearing about “Cloning and Stem Cell Research” as I enjoyed preparing for this speech. (Transition: Let`s take a look at what cloning and stem cells are) * BODY I. What is cloning and stem cells? Which is the process of cloning a human being or an animal? A. Definition of cloning: Clones are genetically identical organisms. This means that every piece of DNA is exactly the same between the 'clones' which causes them to have exactly the same features. B. History of cloning: Cloning before 1990s was not well known and people didn’t know much about it although the very first clones date since 1885. The first cloning process took place in The University of Utah by scientists Robert Briggs and Thomas King who cloned an American frog. This frog was cloned by nuclear transfer; they removed the nucleus from an embryo and placed it in a recipient frog egg cell that didn’t have nucleus. There were other cloning processes through years 1958, 1975 which used the same procedure. The climax of cloning came at year 1996 when Dolly sheep was cloned in Roslin Institute in Scotland by scientists Keith Campbell and Ian Wilmut from (University Of Utah). This was special because was the first animal to be created by from differentiated adult cells. C. What stem cells are: Stem cells are cells at the earliest stage of development. They have two main characteristics, they can divide themselves, and can become specialized for a particular function and become organs or tissues if they are developed correctly. There are three types of stem cells 1. Embryonic stem cells: These kinds of stem cells are the most popular ones they appear as the first element in development of a human being. 2. Fetal stem cells: These cells are taken from aborted fetuses 7-8 week’s development. 3. Adult stem cells: are cells taken from different organs of an adult such as tissue, lungs, pancreas, fat etc. * (Transition: Now that we know what cloning and stem cells are let`s explore their benefits and the impact they have in our lives.) II. What are the benefits of stem cells? According to scientists stem cell research is the solution to fight some diseases that are very difficult or have no cure in now days. Also another advantage is to study the early stages of human development which till now is a mystery. A. Some diseases that need an answer.
1. Parkinson`s disease: Even though scientists don’t know the causes of this disease, they know which nerve cells are affected by it. So by replacing these damaged nerve cells with new ones we will have a solution about this disease. 2.
Cancer disease: Scientists think that by developing some specific cells they can find a way to cure cancer. So these...
References: 1. Document: “Cloning, Policy Issues”. EISEMAN, E. (2000). Cloning, Policy Issues. In T. H. Murray, & M. J. Mehlman (Eds.), Encyclopedia of Ethical, Legal and Policy Issues in Biotechnology (Vol. 1, pp. 157-172). New York: Wiley. Retrieved from Gale Virtual gallery.
2. Document: “Cloning” Hull, R. T. (2009). Cloning. In C. D. Bryant & D. L. Peck (Eds.), Encyclopedia of Death & the Human Experience (Vol. 1, pp. 202-205). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. . Retrieved from Gale Virtual Gallery.
3. Article: “Benefits of Stem Cells.” Author: Ian Murnaghan BSc (hons), MSc - Updated: 27 February 2013.
4. Article: “First woman to have stem cell organ transplant: Exclusive interview” “The Telegraph” By Fiona Govan in Barcelona 10:08PM GMT 19 Nov 2008
5. Article: “The History of Cloning Humans and Animal” by, Allison Royal Cluster 7 Dr. LeFebvre 27 July 2009.
6. Article: "Cancer-Killing Stem Cells Could Be Used To Treat Cancer." Paddock, C. (2013, January 5). Medical News Today.
7. “Stem cell scientists find almost perfect human match in mice.” This article was published on guardian.co.uk at 03.52 EDT on Thursday 28 June 2007. Alok Jha, science correspondent.
8. Obama Says:” Government Will Not Open the Door for Human Cloning” Published March 09, 2009 FoxNews.com
9. Clemmitt, M. (2006, September 1). Stem cell research. CQ Researcher, 16, 697-720.
10. Stem Cell Controversy Author: Ian Murnaghan BSc (hons), MSc - Updated: 13 February 2013
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