CJUS343 X 1502A 01 Criminology 04 05 2015 Intellipath

Topics: Sociology, Criminology, Crime Pages: 60 (29174 words) Published: April 26, 2015
CJUS343-X-1502A-01 Criminology Intellipath
Biological Theory Learning Materials
As with other theories within the criminal justice theater, multiple variables exist within the study of the biological theory. The following will examine those most researched. Constitutional Theory

Body types are examined and for the most part, explained through what is referred to as constitutional theory. This theory addresses offenders’ body types, genetics, or external observable physical characteristics (Schmalleger, 2012). Also known as somatotyping, classifying according to the body was, in the mid-20th century, the catalyst for constitutional theory. From this theory emerged four basic body types, as follows: •The endomorph is an overweight person with a large stomach. •The mesomorph will have large bones and more muscle mass. •The ectomorph has very long, thin muscles in the extremities and delicate, thin bone structure. •The balanced type is a person of average build, not overweight, nor overly muscular. Behavioral Genetics

Science Behavioral genetics came to the forefront in 1993 when Dutch criminologists made the claim that they had discovered a specific gene that links individuals—particularly men—to criminal behavior. This was a study done on one family in the Netherlands and what was discovered, going back five generations, was that 14 men were classified as criminal types, but none of the women were. This was attributed to the fact that men have only one X chromosome, while women have two. This second chromosome in women serves as a backup, in the event the other one becomes defective. However, with the men, once the one and only X chromosome becomes defective, it was discovered that the defect resulted in the production of an enzyme called monoamine oxidase A (MAOA). Monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) is crucially involved in the process by which signals are transmitted within the brain by breaking down the chemicals serotonin and noradrenaline—both of which have been linked to aggressive behavior in human beings. Because men with the mutated gene do not produce enough of the enzyme necessary to break down a lot of chemical transmitters, the researchers surmised, their brains are overwhelmed with stimuli, resulting in uncontrollable urges and, ultimately, criminal behavior (Schmalleger, 2012). Male and Female Differences in Crime

Male and female differences in crime are evident, not only in the number of offenses and arrests made, but in the types of crime. While the numbers are considerably higher for females arrested for prostitution and shoplifting, the number of crimes committed by men in all other categories clearly outweighs that of females. Questions (scored 7 correct out of 8)

1. According to Schmalleger (2012), the catalyst for body typing in the middle of the 20th century was known as (somatotyping). 2. Male and female differences in crime are not only in the number of crimes, but also the (types) of crime. 3. Science has proven that biological roots exist within human. (Ans. Aggression) 4. The study by the Dutch criminologists found that men have one “X” chromosome, while women have (two). 5. Four basic body types emerged from the constitutional theories. Name one (endomorph). 6. A person who is overweight would be categorized as an (endomorph) under the constitutional theories. 7. The person categorized as an ectomorph will have muscles that are (thin). (one adjective) 8. The discussion of genetics is infused in which theory? (sociological, biological, or psychological) Summary

The study of the biological theory lends uniqueness not only because the study entails the chemicals and physiological make-up of human beings, but also because of the history associated with it. It is strange, with today’s sciences, to believe that at one time, educated persons were considering the shape or size of an individual’s head or muscular make up to be an indicator of criminal propensity. This is proof that theory, like...
Continue Reading

Please join StudyMode to read the full document

You May Also Find These Documents Helpful

  • Essay on Criminology
  • criminology Essay
  • Essay about Criminology
  • Criminology Essay
  • 2015 01 10 2015 01 10 12 Essay
  • criminology Essay
  • Criminology Essay
  • Criminology Essay

Become a StudyMode Member

Sign Up - It's Free