CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS - Italian explorer, sail for Queen Isabella of Spain, 3 ships were the Nina, Pinta, and the Santa Maria. Columbus was looking for a route East by sailing West. He is credited with discovering the New World
THE JOURNAL by William Carlos Williams
Christopher Columbus’ personal account (from his journal) of his final days of his first voyage and landing on the island of San Salvador in 1492
1. September 22 – why was “the contrary wind” necessary for Columbus? Because his crew had come to believe that no wind blew towards Spain. 2. What happened on Tuesday, September 25 and then what happened the next day? Martin Alonzo thought he spotted land. The next day they realized it was only a cloud –not land. 3. Summarize important events on Saturday, October 11. 1. Saw a sandpiper and a reed (land was near) 2. Pinta – people spotted a pole and a pole of iron, a land plant and board. 3. Nina – people spotted a plant with berries. 4. The Pinta, the faster ship, found land – first seen by Rodrio de Triana 4. Saturday, October 13 – list adjectives Columbus used to describe land, trees, and fish. Trees and land -- bright green, beautiful, different, diversity, greatest wonder. Fish – wonderful, bright, finest color. 5. How did Columbus report the distance travel each day? Columbus reported the distance (in leagues = about 3 miles) traveled as LESS than the distance they really did travel. WHY did he report it this way? So his crew would not get so discouraged by the distance traveled without seeing land – moral was low. 6. October 13 – how did Columbus view the New World? He thought if was more beautiful and different from his country. It was bright, vivid colors, wonderful. The trees and land were very different and bright green – the most beautiful he had ever seen --- a garden.
JOHN SMITH – English explorer. In 1607, Smith was in charge of the first permanent English settlement in Jamestown, Virginia. The story goes that Smith was captured by Chief Powhatan and rescued from death by Powhatan’s daughter, Pocahontas. After 2 years, Smith returned to England. Smith returned to New England area (explored coast from Maine to Cape Cod) made maps, traded with Indians – returned to England. He wrote a pamphlet Description of New England to help persuade people to go to there.
A DESCRIPTION OF NEW ENGLAND by John Smith
1. In the first sentence, to what group of people of economic “means” and “fortune” is Smith addressing this work too? He is directing this to people who are hard working, not much money and willing to take a risk to improve their life. 2. Name at least one attraction to life in New England that appeals to the qualities of virtue, faith, and honor. 1. Virtue – hard work, farming the land. 2. Faith – to convert the savage Indians to Christ 3. Honor--discovering new things, building towns, reforming things unjust, teaching the ignorant. 3. Name three main ways that Smith describes to make a living the New England. 1. Farming 2. Fishing 3.Hunting Name five other trades that are needed? Carpenters, masons, fowlers, gardeners, tailors, weavers 4. Who does Smith think does not need to come to the Americas and who does he think should come to America? DOES NOT want to persuade children from parents, husbands from wives, or servants from masters -- without their consent. DOES want to persuade fatherless children of 13 or 14, young married people that do not have much money – and are hard workers. 5. In the last sentence, who does Smith feel will benefit most by establishing settlements in New England? The hard working trades men and apprentices – that can do carpentry, weaving, farming, spinners, gardeners, etc.
WILLIAM BRADFORD led the Pilgrims to America. He was a Yorkshire farmer that converted to an extreme form of Puritanism. Bradford and his group of...
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