Challenges of India in the 21st Century

Topics: India, Economy of India, Mumbai Pages: 9 (3271 words) Published: August 14, 2013
India’s Challenges in the 21st Century
Towards a more Equitable, Inclusive and Sustainable India
India Facts and Achievements
India is a country of continental proportions and rich cultural heritage. The civilizational history of India goes back to more than 5000 years. In ancient times India was considered as one of the leading lights of the world and its glory was spread far and wide all across the corners of the earth. Throughout its history, India has evolved and reinvented herself. India is the birthplace and cradle of four popular religions of the world, namely, Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, and Sikhism. The contributions and achievements of Indians in the fields of science & technology, architecture, and culture is widely acknowledged. India one of the oldest civilizations in world has a long history. There are 325 spoken languages and 1,652 dialects. India considers 18 languages as her official languages. There are 29 states and five union territories within the federal system of the Government of India. She has 3,28 million sp. Kilometers of landed area and 7,516 kilometers of coastline. Second largest population in the world with a population of 1.3 billion. She publishes 5600 dailies, 15000 weeklies and 20000 periodicals in 21 languages with a combined circulation of 142 million. It is the largest democracy in the world and the 4th largest economy in the world. It is the largest English speaking nation in the world and 3rd largest standing army force , over 1,5 million strong and the 2nd largest pool of scientists and engineers in the world. She has secured World-class recognition in IT, bio-technology and space. India has the largest movie industry in the world producing nearly an average of 800 movies a year Do you know that Christopher Columbus discovered America by accident? In fact attracted by India’s great wealth, he embarked on a journey to discover a sea route to India, but accidentally found America. Until the British arrived in India, it was considered the wealthiest country in the world. The time when most of the modern cultures were nothing but nomadic forest dwellers, the Indians had already established Indus Valley Civilization and were flourishing. The Indians were the pioneers in the field of astrology, astronomy, mathematics and philosophy. The modern India is nothing but a tattered remnant of its magnificent past, shattered and looted recurrently by foreign invaders. Albert Einstein once said, “We owe a lot to the Indians, who taught us how to count, without which no worthwhile scientific discovery could have been made.” There are many interesting and little known facts about India which have been compiled below.. Amazing Facts About India

* The name India has been derived from the River Indus. In and around the Indus valley, the Harappa Civilization, one of the earliest civilizations of mankind, started taking its roots. * It is said that the first bathroom was built in India about 4500 years ago. * The first university in the history of mankind was established in Takshila in 700 BC. The University of Nalanda was built in the 4th century and was considered one of the greatest landmarks in the field of education. * The oldest inhabited city in the world is Varanasi or Banaras. * The study of Algebra, Trigonometry and Calculus were first devised in India. An Indian mathematician-astronomer Aryabhatta invented zero. * Over 2,600 years ago, the father of surgery Sushruta and his team performed complex surgeries such as cataract, artificial limbs, cesareans, fractures, urinary stones, plastic surgery and brain surgeries. * Chess was invented in India and was known as ‘Chaturanga’ during those days. In the 13th century, Gyandev, a poet-saint invented the game of Snakes and Ladders. During those days, the game was known as ‘Mokshapat’ and held a significant meaning. The snakes represented vices, while the ladders stood for good virtues. The essence...
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