Camless Engine

Topics: Camshaft, Internal combustion engine, Connecting rod Pages: 18 (5357 words) Published: June 22, 2013
ABSTRACT

Camless internal combustion engines offer major improvements over traditional engines in terms of efficiency, maximum torque and power, pollutant emissions. Electromechanical valve actuators are very promising in this context, but still present significant control problems. Low valve seating velocity, small transition time for valve opening and closing, unavailability of position sensor are the main objectives to be considered in the design of the valve control system. Actuator physical limitations strongly influence the feasible trajectory when low valve seating velocity is required, thus affecting valve transition time. Traditionally four stroke engine valves have been operated with cams and rocker arms. The biggest problem with this is they are subjected to wear and tear and other effect like tapped noise and so on. The camless engine will be the solution for this problem. The valve actuation can be done by different ways like electro hydraulic actuation, electro mechanical actuation, hydraulic actuation and solenoid actuation. Our study is on the replacement of the entire cam and rocker arm mechanism with an electronically controlled solenoid operated valve system. A solenoid- operated valve for use in an internal combustion engine has a valve body controlled electronically using a solenoid to actuate it which in turn is controlled by an electronic control unit. The electronic control unit perform the task of converting the timing signal from optocoupler sensor into a pulse in the required form to the solenoid to open and close the valves.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER NO. TITLEPAGE NO.
ABSTRACT
LIST OF FIGURES
LIST OF TABLES
1. INTRODUCTION5
2.1 FOUR STROKE ENGINE5
1.1.1WORKING OF 4 STROKE ENGINE6
1.1.2VALVE MECHANISM6
2.2 EXISTING VALVE ACTUATION SYSTEM7
2.3 PARTS OF VALVE ACTUATION SYSTEM7
1.3.1ROCKER ARM7
1.3.2CAM SHAFT7
2.4 VALVE TIMING7
2.5 METHODS OF VALVE ACTUATION8
1.5.1ELECTROMECHANICAL VALVE ACTUTION9
1.5.2SINGLE COIL SOLENOID WITH SPRING9
RETURN METHOD
2MECHANICAL DESIGN10
2.1VALVE ACTUATION SYSTEM10
2.2SPECIFICATION OF THE ENGINE10
2.3MODIFICATION IN THE ENGINE11
2.3.1EXISTING FEATURE11
2.3.2ALIGNMENT OF VALVE AXIS 11
2.3.3 DESING OF FIXTURE12
2.3.4 EXISTING CAM REMOAL13
2.3.5 MACHINING OF DISC14
2.4DETEMINATION OF VALVE TIMING14
2.4.1 OVERLAPPING15
3SPRING DESIGN15
3.1DESIGN CALCULATION15
3.1.1FORCE CALCULATION 15
3.1.2 CALCULATION OF THE TIME16
FOR EACH STROKE
4.VALVE ACTUATION SYSTEM16
4.1EXISTING MECHANISM16
4.2PLUNGER ROD17
4.3ASSEMBLY OF SOLENOID ACTUATION SYSTEM17
5 ELECTRICAL CIRCUITS18
5.1PROXIMITY SENSOR18
5.2RELAY COIL19
5.3SOLENOID19
5.3.1 SPECIFICATION OF SELECTED SOLENOID20
6VALVE ACTUATION BY SOLENOID21
6.1ADVANTAGES21
6.2DISADVANTAGES22
CONCLUSION23
FUTURE SCOPE24
RREFERENCE25

LIST OF FIGURES
FIGURE NO.TITLEPAGE NO.
1 VALVE TIMING DIAGRAM OF FOUR 8
STROKE ENGINE
2 DIAGRAM OF VALVE ACTUATION10
3 THE ANGLE VARIATION BETWEEN 12
THE VALVE AND HEAD BORE
4 ASSEMBLED HEAD PLATE13
5 ASSEMBLED SIDE PLATE13
6 2D VIEW OF TIMING SHAFT14
7 2D VIEW OF MACHINED DISC14
8 3D VIEW OF MACHINED DISC14
9 ASSEMBLED VIEW OF SOLENOID 18
ACTUATION SYSTEM
10 CONSTRUCTIONAL VIEW OF PROXIMITY19
SENSOR
11SOLENOID VALVE20

1. INTRODUCTION
Automobile manufacturers have recognized the compromises...

References: 1. C.Gray “A Review of Variable Engine Valve Timing”, SAE paper, no. 880386, (1988)
2
3. W.Hoffmann & A.Stefanopoulou “Valve Position Tracking for Soft Land of Electromechanical Camless Valve train”, 3rd IFAC Conference Advances in Automotive Control, (2001)
4
5. Isao Matsumoto & Hideyuki Nishida “Internal Combustion Engine having Solenoid-Operated Valves & Control Method”, Patent No. US 6,332,446B1, (2001)
6
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