California

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ENVS 331 SPRING 2013 FINAL EXAM STUDY QUESTIONS

1. In basic terms, what is the difference between imperialism of the “traditional” European variety and the “neo-imperialism” practiced by the US during the 20th century?
2. How did World War II contribute to the end of European imperialism (consider the phenomenon of “imperial overstretch,” which you should be able to define)—and enable the expansion of US influence overseas? (Consider the impact of World War II on the European imperialist economies; the impact of World War II on the US economy and its military power. )
3. What basic economic problem in the newly independent post-colonial countries was foreign assisted development intended to address? (Hint: savings.) European imperial control ‘set up’ the colonies for this problem. How?
4. Why was the US-recommended development path attractive to a certain population segment in developing countries, and who were they? In general, what does a “favorable investment climate” look like?
5. What is the World Bank’s role? For what does it lend, and how are the projects built with the borrowed funds supposed to help the borrowing country to ‘develop’? (What is the expected sequence of events, beginning with the loan and ending with loan repayment.) Name and describe at least 4 things that can go wrong at various points in this sequence, resulting in inability to repay. Why did the Bank develop a bad reputation among environmentalists? (Consider the kinds of projects for which loans were/are made.)
6. What is a ‘balance of payments’ crisis (describe in general terms; you should be able to name a couple of things on each side of the balance)? What is the IMF’s role when a country has a balance of payments crisis? What conditions does the IMF require when it gives a loan to a chronically imbalanced country? Explain why environmentalists and social justice advocates are critical of the IMF, with reference to its loan conditions.
7. NTBs or

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