STATE BUREAUCRACY OF BHUTAN
The concept of bureaucracy has fallen into the common domain of political sociology, theory of history, and public opinion, and has been consecrated to the success it has today, it has nevertheless remained so imprecise that it is still meaningful to question the identity of the phenomena it claims to describe. Bureaucracy is one of the first-born organizations of governance and administration in the past. It is hierarchical structure of organization or government contained of specialized folks ranging from the highest level of managers and executives to the lowest rank of clerk staff to attain some goals. The appearance of state bureaucracy in Bhutan can be dated back to the formation and consolidation of state by Zhabdrung Rimpoche in 1620s. The system of government which Zhabdrung introduced in Bhutan was dual system comprising of secular and spiritual aspects. The Desi and Je-khenpo was the head of secular and spiritual respectively. The territorial expansion over time leads to the growth of bureaucracy to consolidate state control as the administration task is not easy. Dzongs were built as administrative centers where there was a hierarchy of staffs performing various administrative works. Penlops and Dzongpons were selected to administer the region and a host of other officials were also appointed in every dzongs to assists Penlops and Dzongpons where these officials constituted the state’s bureaucracy in Bhutan. Today, under the benevolent leaderships, bureaucracy has been diversified to facilitate smooth administrative job and service delivery system. The bureaucratic system has advanced during the reign of third king with the change in political and economic situation. The major thing was the introduction of national assembly in 1953 and formation of Ministries. Further the introduction of DYT and GYT took the devolution of power during the fourth king. Moreover, Royal Civil Service Commission was established to make the bureaucracy more efficient under the Royal charter. Bhutan’s bureaucracy is comprised of civil servants who fall under different organizations like judiciary, constitutional bodies, executive, autonomous and other agencies. All the civil servants are considered as bureaucrats starting from the executive level to the lowest post. The country’s adoption to democracy further brought changes in bureaucratic system. Bureaucracy has become a worldwide phenomenon of every society in which it plays a role in the socio-economic development of the country. Some of the roles and responsibilities of the state bureaucrats mentioned below; * Bureaucracy can immensely contribute to development by serving as advisor, as an inventor and, as a decision maker. * The bureaucrat is expected to implement the law and policy formulated by the politicians faithfully. * Since bureaucrats have expert knowledge, they act as pure adviser to their political master, present facts of the case; suggest lines of action and implication of alternative policies. * The bureaucracy also ensures political stability. It is often referred to as the fourth branch of government because of its power and influence. The existence of a body of professional career officials guarantee that government is conducted in an orderly and reliably fashion. The bureaucracy provides continuity to the government and ensures smooth function of government. In all bureaucracy ensures the public to have efficient service delivery system. Literature Review
Though numerous literatures exist about this subject however, there is different views and conscience among historians and researchers. Therefore, a practical analysis based on findings of other countries becomes very imprecise and bogus. According to Weber (1986), the evolution of bureaucracy is based on the insight that modern officialdom can be identified by a set of typical characteristics. These were that officials were full-time...
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