Brain Vs Mind
The brain is an organ of soft nervous tissue, located in the skull of vertebrates; it is the controlling centre of the nervous system. (Dictionary 2010) The mind is the centre of the consciousness that generates thoughts and feelings; the mind itself stores knowledge and memories. (Dictionary 2010) Assumptions and Methods
Monism is the belief that the brain and the mind are the same thing. (Robson 2011) MRI scans and other experiments have demonstrated that the brain and the mind cannot exist without each other. Dualists believe the mind and the brain are separate. (Robson 2011) Although the mind and the brain are separate from one another, the brain affects the mind just as the mind affects the brain.
Examples from Psychology
The biological approach is divided into three sections, the comparative model, physiology and inheritance.
The physiology is the study of the brain and the nervous system, which relates to behaviour, especially if the brain has been damaged through various illnesses i.e. Prescribed drugs for depression, non prescribed drugs i.e. heroin, cocaine, marijuana and alcohol or from brain mal-development i.e. aspergers, autism, teretts and ADHD. (Robson 2011) Freud, the founder of the psychodynamic perspective which underlines human behaviours, especially the dynamics of the conscious and unconscious mind. (Robson 2011)
Freud is best known for his theories of the unconscious mind. Freud explained these concepts by comparing the human mind to an iceberg, the iceberg visible above the Water is the conscious mind – this represents our knowledge and our thinking process.
Many experiments have been conducted on the brain including techniques to observe behavioural effects by using stimulus response. Stimulus being the external and response being the brain.
There are three types of behaviourism 1. Classic conditioning 2. Operant conditioning 3.social learning.
Pavlov used the classic conditioning, using stimulus response with his pet dog, stimulus being the food, using a bell as the response.
Skinner used operant conditioning on a mouse using positive and negative reinforcement, if the mouse pressed the correct button he was rewarded, however if he presses the incorrect button he received a negative electric response.
Bandura used social learning, using a BOBO doll; he influenced human learning by imitating and copying others actions. There are four processes within social learning, 1. Attention, 2. Retention, 3. Motivation, 4. Reproduction. (Robson 2011) The largest part of the iceberg hidden under the water, is our unconscious mind which represents everything that we have learnt and experienced from a baby, including memories that may have been forgotten, which may be remembered in adulthood. 4 Freud believes the unconscious mind consists of three components the ID, EGO and the SUPER-EGO. ID – Present at birth and is the unconscious.
EGO – Mediates between ID and SUPER-EGO.
SUPER-EGO – Is the moral judge. (Robson 2011)
The biological approach uses scientific experiments in its investigations, which are used to enhance human learning, i.e. Bandura social learning is used most widely. (Robson 2011) The psychodynamic approach helps to understand mental health problems, which can be caused by childhood trauma. Freud has influenced the way mental disorders are treated. (www.onlineclassroom.tv 2011) Weaknesses
Some scientific experiments can be traumatising, i.e. Watson and Little Albert – although he may have been de-conditioned there is still a possibility of having a negative effect in later life.(Robson 2011) Freud’s theory is not scientific; it cannot be demonstrated to be true. His sample was biased as it was based on middle aged women from Vienna. (www.simplypsychology.org 2011)
Robson 2011 – Barry Robson 2011 Full Freud
Robson 2011 – Barry Robson...
Please join StudyMode to read the full document