Bio 114 Notes

Topics: Evolution, Species / Pages: 99 (24604 words) / Published: Dec 9th, 2012
Evolution by natural selection is slow but can be observed in certain situations.

How to spot evolution in real time:

Artificial selection – manipulation by humans such as breeding dogs or growing corn.

Repro-rate – rate of reproduction.

Stochastic Event: unexpected disaster like a volcano eruption or tornado.

(Research geological time)


Biology – Study of living things.

Living things – all the organisms descended from a single-celled ancestor.

* Characteristics:
Contains genetic information used to reproduce
Genetically related and have evolved
Can convert molecules from their environment into new biological molecules
Can extract energy from the environment and use it to do biological work
Can regulate their internal environment (what is internal environment)

Evolution: who lives and who dies with/without reproducing. Diffusion was a big part at the origin of evolution.
Organisms evolve through differential survival and reproduction.

All life started as unicellular organisms (single cell carries out all functions of life)

Multicellular organisms: made of many cells specialized for different functions.

Cells are studied using microscopes.

Van Leeuwenhoek and Hooke were the first to observe living organisms and their cells under microscopes in the late 1600’s.

Charles Darwin proposed that all living things are descended from common ancestors.

Evolution by natural Selection

Survival of the fittest – Herbert Spencer

i.e. Survival of the reproducing

Fittest = The individual whose genes are most highly represented in the next generation ≠ most aggressive.

Killing off a species is bad for eliminating gene pools, but not always good.

Some survival of the fittest refer to a species such as bees (which are eusocial) They are 75% related to each other due to having one queen.

Cell Theory:

Cells are the basic structural and physiological units of all living organisms.

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