The battle of Culloden Moor, fought on 16 April 1746, took less than an hour to reach its conclusion and extinguish the Scots’ hopes of returning a Scottish Stuart king to the throne of Scotland. This was a battle between the Jacobites, who were the supporters of Bonnie Prince Charlie, and the Hanoverian British army; and it brought to a bloody end the Jacobite uprising of 1745.
The lead-up to this battle started in the 1630s, which was a period of religious and political upheaval in Britain. In 1688 the Catholic King James VII of Scotland and II of England was deposed by Protestant nobility in favour of William of Orange, as the Protestants were fearful that King James was trying to create a Catholic dynasty. He was exiled to France but still had much support from Ireland and Scotland; however, he did nothing about it. It was not until his son was born that hopes for a new Stuart king fuelled the fervour of already unhappy followers. By the age of 13 Charles Edward Stuart (Bonnie Prince Charlie) began to realise that he could accomplish a dream and regain the throne that was rightfully his in the first place.
At the age of 23 Prince Charles, with the support of a French invasion force and the blessing of his father, travelled to Scotland to make his claim and lead the House of Stuart back to the throne. Once in Scotland, it did not take Charles very long to persuade one chief after another to join him in his quest. Within one month of arriving in Scotland, Charles had raised his standard in Glenfinnan and the Government realised that a rebellion had begun.
Charles’ men marched for London in an attempt to encourage the English Jacobites to join them. Meanwhile, the Government had assembled two of their own armies; one was concentrated in the north-east near Newcastle and the other was to defend the English midlands. With little support from the English Jacobites, and with two government armies behind them and believing there was a third in London, the...
Bibliography: 7. ‘Scotland’ in The World Book Encyclopedia, 1973, World Book Chicago, vol.17, p184c-185.
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