Throughout history, the United States and the U.S.S.R. have been competing in what is known as the "Space Race". This all began when the Russians sent the first satellite into space in 1958 called Sputnik. Soon after, Americans did the same. The U.S. followed in the footsteps of the U.S.S.R. with sending animals into space. When they sent the first human into space, Yuriy Gagaran, it became evident that the race to the moon had begun. In 1963, President John F. Kennedy made a speech saying "We will go to the moon in this decade amongst other things, not because they are easy but because they are hard." After he was assassinated, NASA decided to pursue his plan and in 1967 the Apollo program began. In 1969, NASA landed Apollo 11 on the moon and the race was finally over. This was a major leap not only for Americans, but also for mankind. Videos and photos that were taken on the moon were shown to the public and unfortunately, it caused skepticism. There are people who feel that Apollo 11 never really landed on the moon and that it was staged in a studio. Although these "Moon Conspiracy Theorists" have convincing arguments, NASA and other scientists have proved them to be wrong to show that Apollo 11 did in fact land on the moon and that it was not the "ultimate camera trick".
Moon conspiracy theorists such as Ralph Rene, David Milne, David Percy and James Collier have investigated several different aspects of the moon landing and have come up with reasons for each of why it could not have been possible. The skepticism started when Rene noticed on the videos and in the still photos (even though it is impossible to see a flag waving in a still photo) that the American flag seemed to be waving about as it was being placed into the ground on the moon. This brought him to wonder how that was possible if there was no wind or air on the moon. In response to the still photos, the conspiracy theorists can be proved wrong through the fact that the waving appearance is actually just wrinkles on the flag from its packing. The material of the flag was a very light nylon that is lighter in lunar gravity than in our gravity, which caused the wrinkles to overcome the gravity for longer. In the videos, the movement of the flag was a simple product of the assembly process. When Buzz Aldrin and Neil Armstrong were putting the flag into the ground by rotating it back and forth, it caused the flag to move back and forth, creating a "fluttering" or waving motion. No wind or breeze was required to make the flag look like it was moving.
The conspiracy theorists, in their infinite wisdom, also felt that the 841 pounds of moon rock that have been brought back to the earth by the nine astronauts who have landed on the moon over history are not really moon rocks. They felt that the moon rocks could have easily been fabricated in a laboratory, but no such process in which this could happen has been brought to the attention of scientists who study planetary science. A conspiracy theorist said that one possible way to fake a moon rock is to put it in a "radiation oven", but no such oven exists. Bill Kaysing, a conspiracy theorist, said that NASA has access to ovens that reach 5,000 degrees Fahrenheit and this temperature could produce any mineral that they choose, but according to physicist J. R. Keller, "melting a composite mineral and allowing it to solidify sets up convection patterns in the molten mix and the resulting pattern is preserved in the solid where it can be examined". Convection is a function of gravity, and lunar rocks exhibit convection patterns that were obviously produced in the much less lunar gravity. To top it off, lunar rock samples have almost no water trapped in their crystal structure, and common substances such as clay minerals that are always seen on Earth are totally absent in Moon rocks. Particles in moon rocks that were produced by volcanic activity some 3 billions years ago could not have been...
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